Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

2021, volume 17

Sex differences in physical development in Gujarat youths

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 486-489
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Kalmin O.V., Frunze Е.М.
Organization: Penza State University

Objective: to identify the sex differences in anthropometric and somatotypological parameters of the Gujarat youth people. Material and Methods. 147 male and 105 female 18-21 years old of the Gujarat ethnicity were studied. Anthropometry was carried out with a standard set of instruments. The following parameters were measured: body length, weight, transverse chest diameter, straight chest diameter, chest circumference at the moment of inhalation, chest circumference at the moment of exhalation, shoulder width, pelvic width. The indices of Pignet, Tanner, Erisman, Rees — Eisench, Quetelet II were calculated. Results. The body length of boys averaged 171.8±0.5 cm, for girls — 156.8±0.6 cm; the body weight of boys averaged 63.6±1.1 kg, girls — 53.37±1.09 kg; the value of the biacromial diameter in boys was 39.8±0.1 cm, in girls — 34.3±0.2 cm; the frontal diameter of the chest in boys was 26.9±0.2 cm, in girls — 23.0±0.2 cm; the circumference of the chest in boys at the time of the pause was 87,8±0,7 cm, in girls — 79.9±0.5 cm. The maximum circumference of the chest in boys and girls was determined to be 90.9±0.7 cm and 84.8±0.6 cm, respectively, minimum circumference of the chest in boys and girls — 82.9±0.7 and 76.2±0.6 cm, respectively. Conclusion. In both boys and girls, in most cases, an asthenic body type, narrow chest, and normal body weight were determined. According to the index of sexual dimorphism among the subjects as a whole, the mesomorphic body type was more often determined, the andromorphic type in parts was in second place and was 3.9 times more often detected in boys, the gynecomorphic type was 9.8 times more often detected in girls.

Keywords: adolescence, constitutional type, Gujarat people, physical development

Risks of digitalization of healthcare relevant to doctors of medical organizations of districts of the Saratov region (according to the results of sociological research)

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 481-485
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Eremina М.G.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University

Objective: to determine the risks of digitalization, relevant to doctors, in the rural health care of the Saratov region. Material and Methods. The survey was attended by 87 doctors working in medical organizations in the districts of the Saratov region. The majority (88%) of the respondents are women. The average age of the respondents is 48±2 years. To conduct the research, a sociological survey questionnaire was developed, which considered the issues of increasing the availability and quality of medical care to the population; problems of rural healthcare, the solutions of which are associated with the digitalization of healthcare; barriers in the development of telemedicine; the willingness of respondents to use telemedicine technologies in professional activities. Results and Discussion. The majority (94%) of respondents assume that with the development of telemedicine in the region, the availability of medical care for the population will increase, but 81% of respondents don't believe that telemedicine will improve the quality of medical care. Only 27% of respondents used telemedicine technologies in their professional activities. The majority of respondents (92%) don't support the expansion of telemedicine capabilities associated with the ability to remotely diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient; 98% of respondents exclude an increase in adherence to the treatment of patients in the conditions of telemedicine. Conclusion. The results of the research indicate an insufficient preparatory, technical and organizational component in the process of digitalization of the healthcare system at the regional level.

Keywords: risks of digitalization , relevant to doctors in rural healthcare, digitalization of the healthcare system

Medicine of the future: trends and technological solutions (review)

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 476-480
Heading: public health Article type: Review
Authors: Muslimov M.I.
Organization: Clinic of Scientific Medicine

Objective: to systematize the most promising biomedical innovations and technological approaches which have certain significance for the development of world and domestic medicine. The article provides an overview of the latest trends and trends in world medicine and healthcare. In the course of the study, scientific publications were analyzed, both in printed form and in the form of electronic publications. The search for literary sources included 15 years. The review uses the works from the international medical databases PubMed, EMBASE, medRxiv, bioRxiv, LILACS, Cochrane, Scopus and SciELO, CrossRef, Google Scholar, the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) and the electronic library eLibrary. Molecular genetic diagnostics, bioinformatic analysis of genomic and biomarker data, gene therapy, regenerative medicine, cell engineering, creation of targeted biological products, new types of genetically engineered vaccines, personal telemedicine, artificial medical intelligence systems are not a complete list of innovations being introduced into modern clinical practice.

Keywords: trends, regenerative medicine, development, 4P medicine

Congenital diaphragmatic hernias (clinical cases)

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 471-475
Heading: Pediatrics Article type: Case report
Authors: Nechaev V.N., Chernenkov Yu.V., Petrosyan A.T.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University

The article analyzes the causes of fetal and newborn diaphragm abnormalities in women at risk for this pathology. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a pathological condition that gives severe complications and a high mortality rate (more than 30%). Early pre- and postnatal diagnostics allow for effective surgical correction of this congenital malformation. The article presents two clinical cases, one without complications and other developmental abnormalities, the second-having a combination of congenital diaphragmatic hernia with a heart malformation and pulmonary complications that caused a fatal outcome in a newborn.

Keywords: congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Arterial hypertension and risk of cardiovascular complications in representatives of various sports and age groups (review)

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 464-470
Heading: Cardiology Article type: Review
Authors: Shmoylova A.S., Novitsky A.V., Smirnova A.D., Shvarts Yu.G.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University

The purpose of the review is to determine the influence of various sports on the state of the cardiovascular system, taking into account the age characteristics of athletes participating in competitions. The original articles have been searched in the PubMed database for the period from 1999 till 2020 by keywords: "arterial hypertension among athletes", "blood pressure and hypertension in athletes", "sudden cardiac death in sport", "arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk", "exercise and hypertension", "left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes", echocardiography in athletes. We used the database for the period from 1978 till 2020 by keywords: "arterial hypertension and sports", "sports heart", "left ventricular hypertrophy and sports", with a study of the list of literary sources and works of 1899 and 1936. For the review, works were selected that took into account the differences between sports and/or age using large contingents of the surveyed. A total of 38 sources were studied. There is currently not much data on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease among athletes. In this regard, special attention should be paid to the measurement of blood pressure before and after exercise, including in persons without arterial hypertension. The relationship of ultrasound examination of the heart and blood vessels with the risk of cardiovascular complications is currently not fully understood, and there are quite contradictory data on this issue, however, the advantages of these studies are obvious.

Keywords: hypertensive disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, physical activity, sports, veteran athletes

Comprehensive evaluation of vascular wall state in patients with arterial hypertension in different periods of ischemic stroke

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 460-464
Heading: Cardiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Mayorova S.V., Lipatova Т.Е.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University

Objective: to assess the indicators of arterial stiffness and endothelial function in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) in different periods of ischemic stroke (IS), depending on the degree of recovery of neurological functions. Material and Methods. We examined 180 patients aged over 40 years with AH in the acute period of IS, admitted to the neurological department from September, 2015 to June, 2019. The degree of functional independence was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). The patients were divided into 2 groups: group I —with a high level of recovery, mRS<3 (n=88) and group II — with a low level of recovery, mRS>3 (n=92). The oscillometric method was used to assess the average daily indicators of vascular rigidity. The level of endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelium-dependent vasodilation (ESVD) and occlusion index were investigated. The observation period was 2 months. Results. Group II in the acute period of IS is characterized by higher values of the rigidity of the vascular wall (SPW 13.8±1.8 m/s vs 11.6± 1.7 m/s, p<0.05), an increase in the level of ET-1 (6,5±1.8 ng/ml vs 5.6±1.8ng/ml, p<0.05), decreased EDVD (5.0±1.2% vs 5.9±1.4, p<0.05). After 2 months, there was a positive trend in the studied indicators in both groups. In group II, PWV decreased from 13.8±1.8 m/s to 11.8±1.6 m/s, p<0.05; in group I, PWV decreased from 11.6±1.7 m/s to 9.8±1.5 m/s, p<0.05. Conclusion. Patients with a low restorative potential showed a decrease in endothelial function and higher indicators of vascular rigidity.

Keywords: arterial hypertension, arterial stiffens, endothelial function, ischemic stroke

Treatment tactics for gastrointestinal bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention for myocardial infarction with development of no-reflow syndrome (clinical case)

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 458-460
Heading: Cardiology Article type: Case report
Authors: Kosheleva N.A., Kharlamov V.E., Kashkina E.I.
Organization: Saratov Regional Clinical Hospital, Saratov State Medical University

This clinical case demonstrates that percutaneous coronary intervention indicated in the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention may result in no-reflow syndrome. Drug therapy of myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation and no-reflow syndrome is accompanied by the introduction of a large number of antithrombotic drugs. The prescription of triple antiplatelet, anticoagulant therapy significantly increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in patients with a history of ulcer disease. The practitioner doctor being prepared for such a complication of this therapy, take timely measures to stop it, and use proton pump inhibitors for the purpose of gastroprotection.

Keywords: cardiac infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention

Characteristics of electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells in patients on long-term hemodialysis

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 453-457
Heading: Internal Diseases Article type: Original article
Authors: Boldyreva E.S., Kudryavtsev E.V.
Organization: Izhevsk State Medical Academy

Objective: to analyze the electrophoretic properties of erythrocytes in patients receiving programmed hemodialysis treatment. Material and methods. The study included 100 patients with an established diagnosis of chronic kidney disease, stage 5D, receiving treatment with chronic (long-term) hemodialysis. Control group was composed of 17 healthy blood donors. Evaluated indicators of the electrophoretic activity of erythrocytes: vibration amplitude, proportion of motile cells, ellipticity and aggregation index. Results. In comparison with the control group, there were revealed significant changes in the amplitude of oscillations and the proportion of motile cells (p<0.001). No significant gender-defined differences were observed (p>0.05). Significant age differences between young adults and senior adults groups (p=0.048) were observed in the average vibration amplitude, and ellipticity between the middle-aged and senior (p=0.040), old and senior (p=0.035) adults groups. According to the duration of hemodialysis treatment, a decrease in the amplitude of fluctuations to the maximum from the minimum period was revealed: less than 1 year (p=0.029); 1 year (p=0.035), the indicators of the aggregation index have the highest values in the groups with the minimum (p=0.044) and maximum (p=0.035) periods of dialysis. Conclusion. In patients on long-term hemodialysis, the amplitude of red blood cells oscillations is significantly reduced with strong decreasing tendency associated with long duration of chronic hemodialysis treatment.

Keywords: electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells

Features of performing reverse shoulder arthroplasty in conditions of defects and deficiency of bone mass of glenoid cavity of scapula

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 449-452
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Original article
Authors: Kesyan G.A., Karapetyan G.S., Shuysky А.А., Urazgildeev R.Z., Arsenyev I.G., Kesyan O.G.
Organization: National Medical Research Center of Traumatology and Orthopedics n. a. N. N. Priorov

Objective: development and evaluation of the effectiveness of the tactic of actions for reverse shoulder arthroplasty in conditions of defects and bone mass deficiency of the articular surface of the scapula. Material and Methods. At the department of adult orthopedics n. a. N. N. Priorov National Research Medical Center Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 6 patients with glenoid bone mass deficiency underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty, which was replaced by both marginal (4 patients) and extensive bone defects (2 patients). Results. During the follow-up period of the operated patients in the period from 6 to 24 months, good clinical, radiological and functional results were obtained. There were no intra- and postoperative complications. Conclusion. The developed method of replacement of glenoid defects in reverse arthroplasty showed high efficiency.

Keywords: arthroplasty, autograft, omarthrosis, reverse arthroplasty

Antimicrobial activity of anticaries toothpastes for children of early age

Year: 2021, volume 17 Issue: №3 Pages: 444-448
Heading: Stomatology Article type: Original article
Authors: Suetenkov D.E., Sukhorukova M.D., Petrova А.Р., Sayutina L.V.
Organization: Privolzhskiy Research Medical University, Saratov State Medical University

Aim: evaluation of antimicrobial activity of toothpastes with different component composition recommended for early-aged children. Material and methods. The study material comprised dental plaque of patients under the age of 3 years with decompensated caries. Seven toothpastes with different composition for children aged from 0 to 3 years were studied. Identification of the isolated microorganisms was carried out by mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity was determined by diffusion into agar and serial dilutions. Results. Pastes containing xylitol, lactic enzymes and components of medicinal herbs showed the absence of a zone of inhibition of the growth of microorganisms. Fluoride pastes are active against all tested microorganisms. In this case, the inhibiting final concentration of fluorine was 0.00016-0.0025%, depending on the concentration of fluorine in the paste. Conclusion. The least antimicrobial activity had complex pastes with dairy enzymes and components of medicinal herbs, as well as samples with xylitol. Simple toothpastes with organic and inorganic fluoride compounds had the greatest bactericidal effect.

Keywords: cariogenic microflora, early childhood caries, toothpaste