Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Hygiene

Потенциальный риск для здоровья сельского населения, связанный с потреблением местных продуктов питания, содержащих остаточные количества тяжелых металлов

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №4 Pages: 934-939
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Chekhomov S.Yu., Eliseeva Yu.V., Pichugina A.A., Eliseev Yu.Yu.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: hygienic assessment of the potential health risks of consuming local food products produced in ecologically poor areas and containing residual amounts of heavy metals. Material and Methods. Based on the established concentrations of heavy metals (HM): lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in local food products of the Saratov region, the potential risk to the health of the rural population associated with their consumption was assessed. The median and 90th percentile of HM content in local foods were used to calculate exposure, hazard coefficient (HQ), total hazard indices (HI), individual carcinogenic risk (CR), and population carcinogenic risk (PCR). Results. Indicators of the HQ values calculated at the level of the median HM content in food products of the regional districts indicated the acceptable level of their impact. In some areas of the region at the concentration of HM at 90 percentile calculated HQ and total HI of contamination of the HM exceeded the value of 1.0, which required in-depth evaluation of the exposure. Bread and dairy products made the greatest contribution to the level of HM contamination in the majority of the studied areas. Conclusion. High level of CR forthe health of the population of some districts of the Saratov region was associated with contamination of food products As calculated at the 90th percentile. The high PCR forthe population of the same regions of the region, associated with contamination of local food products As, was due to a specific level of the carcinogenic potential factor (SFo=1.5), which sharply increased the likelihood of cancer development with oral exposure to this carcinogen.

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Complex hygienic assessment of labor conditions in the modern production of dairy products

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №4 Pages: 927-934
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Novikova Т.А., Lutsevich I.N., Baregamyan L.A., Aleshina Yu.A.
Organization: Saratov Hygiene Medical Research Center of Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim: to conduct a comprehensive hygienic assessment of working conditions of the main professional groups of workers in the modern production of dairy products. Material and Methods. The object of the research icluded labor conditions of the workers of the dairy plant typical for modern milk processing enterprises. The factors of the working environment (microclimate, illumination, noise, vibration) and the labor process were studied using standard methods, equipment and measuring instruments. A total of 3740 studies of working environment factors, 39 professional studies were carried out. Results. Working conditions in the production of dairy products are harmful with varying degrees of deviation from the current hygiene standards. Take place increased (27.5-28.8°C in the cold and 29.5-29.8°C in the warm seasons) and low (4.5-18.35°C) air temperatures, exceeding the maximum permissible level (MPL) noise (by 1.6-9 dBA), insufficient artificial and natural lighting, physical overloads due to excessive dynamic and static physical load, lifting and moving loads manually (one-time 20 kg), maintaining uncomfortable and forced working positions (up to 50% and up to 25% shift time, respectively), body inclinations (440±28 times per shift). The overall assessment of working conditions corresponded to classes 3.1-3.3. Conclusion. Harmful working conditions pose a low to high health risk to workers. Priority measures have been identified to improve working conditions and prevent health disorders of workers: normalization of the microclimate and light environment, noise reduction, and a decrease in labor severity.

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Characteristics of morphofunctional status of students of agrarian university

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №4 Pages: 923-926
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Latyshevskaya N.I., Levchenko N.V., Kanishcheva E.V.
Organization: Volgograd Medical Scientific Center, Volgograd State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: To give a hygienic assessment of the morphofunctional state of students of the agrarian university of various age groups. Material and Methods. Across-sectional study was carried out: 448 students of the 1st, 3rd and 5th courses were examined. The level of students' motor activity, a complex of anthropometric and physiometric indicators were determined according to traditional methods. The functional state was assessed according to the results of the Stange test, body mass index (by Ketle's formula), Erisman index, life and strength indices. Results. Research has shown that the majority of students (46.4-59.2%), regardless of the year of study, have an average level of physical activity. Comparative analysis of anthropometric and physiometric indicators of students of different courses did not reveal differences in growth indicators, chest circumference, blood pressure level, values of the Stange test. Senior students showed higher values of body weight and muscle strength of the hands (p<0.05), both in boys and girls. For senior students, higher values of indices characterizing the physical development of boys and girls are also characteristic: Erisman index, life index, strength index. At the same time, the values of body mass index were comparable in students of all observation groups. Conclusion. The main trends of changes in the morphofunctional status of students of the agrarian university with increasing age have been established. To clarify the patterns of changes in the morphofunctional status of students, prospective studies are needed in the dynamics of years of study.

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Social and hygienic aspects of doctors' access to health care (review)

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №4 Pages: 917-923
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Review
Authors: Bochkov M.M., Shelekhova T.V., Lutsevich I.N., Ruta A.M., Zaitseva M.R.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

We come across the regular publications that identify the importance of improvement of doctor's access to health care by the way of reducing various kinds of barriers. However, despite a wide range of expert opinions in this, the existing barriers are not clearly defined. The purpose of our review work is to systematize the accumulated materials in this area, 44 sources of foreign literature were analyzed in the electronic databases MEDLINE® (1981-2016) and CINAHL (1982-2010). Analysis of the literature shows that there is not enough information, despite the importance of studying the adherence of doctors to treatment in order to establish cause-and-effect relationships and scientific justification of preventive measures. When studying the compliance of foreign doctors, it is likely to extrapolate the results of research to the doctors of our country.

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Hygienic assessment of the content of heavy metals in food of farming and personal help facilities in the territories of ecologically unfavorable areas

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №3 Pages: 793-799
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Chekhomov S.Yu., Eliseeva Yu.V., Pichugina N.N., Eliseev Yu.Yu.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: Comparative study of heavy metal contamination of local food products produced in ecologically unfavorable areas by farmers and personal subsidiary farms. Material and Methods: Sampling of local food products was carried out in the summer and autumn periods of 2017-19 on the territories of farms and personal subsidiary farms in a number of districts of the Saratov region. Determination of the content of metals in food samples: lead, cobalt and arsenic was performed using adsorption inversion voltammetry on the analyzer "IVA-5". The mercury content was determined by the method of flame-free atomic absorption spectrometry of cold steam on the analyzer "RA 915 M". Results: It is found out that the median concentration of mercury and cadmium in foods by Engels, Fedorovsky, Saratov, Balakovo and Marks areas, regardless of the form of business ownership, and determine the 90-percentile was closest to the remote control. Bread and meat were the most vulnerable local products when combined with heavy metal contamination. Conclusion: Median concentrations of heavy metals in food samples grown on the territories of farms and private farms and used as local food had no significant differences in their quantitative contamination.

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Organization of air basin monitoring according to the results of assessment of public health

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 77-82
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Kolomin V.V., Latyshevskaya N.I., Kudryasheva I.A., Eliseev Yu.Yu.
Organization: Astrakhan State Medical University, Saratov State Medical University, Volgograd State Medical University
Summary:

The aim is to determine the possibility of organizing monitoring of the air basin according to interregional comparative assessment of the nature of the incidence of environmentally related pathologies. Material and Methods. A comparative analysis of the incidence in the Volga regions by pathologies, the occurrence and development of which correlates with indicators of air pollution. An assessment of the results of socio-hygienic monitoring of the quality of the air basin. Results. Differences in the intensity and nature of dynamic changes in the incidence of environmentally caused pathologies in the regions and their inconsistency with the air quality parameters defined in the framework of socio-hygienic monitoring are established. In the Volgograd region, there is a pronounced tendency to reduce the incidence of children with allergic rhinitis (r=-0.78; R2=61.6%), congenital anomalies (malformations) (r=-0.84; R2=71.3%) and dynamics stabilized incidence of pathologies of the endocrine system, in the Saratov region, the indicators of all these pathologies are stable in dynamics, and in the Astrakhan region their marked, significant growth is noted (allergic rhinitis r=+0.77; R2=58.7%, congenital anomalies r=+0.9; R2=81.8%, endocrine system diseases r=+0.93; R2=86.6%). Differences in the organization of air quality monitoring were revealed. In 2018, the concentration of 25 pollutants was monitored in the Volgograd Region (18,290 studies were conducted), in the Saratov Region — 20 pollutants (4,512 studies), in the Astrakhan Region —11 chemical compounds (1,704 studies). Conclusion. An interregional comparative assessment of the nature of the incidence of environmentally caused pathologies can be used to determine the potential air pollution by the corresponding chemical compounds and can serve as a basis for establishing priority pollutants to be controlled in a particular region.

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Actual nutrition and food status of children with alimentary-dependent pathology

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 333-337
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Setko A.G., Mryasova Zh.K., Terekhova E.A., Tyurin A.V.
Organization: Orenburg State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: to study the actual nutrition and nutritional status of children with nutritional-dependent pathology. Material and Methods. The object of the study was 100 children aged 3–11 years, with a clinical diagnosis of alimentary-dependent pathology (functional dyspepsia (K30) and chronic gastritis (K29.3-K29.5)). Evaluation of the actual nutrition of children was carried out in organized children»s groups questionnaire based on 24-day reproduction of food. Nutritional status was assessed by the Quetelet index, physical development was assessed by somatometric indicators (height, body weight, chest circumference) using centile tables with and harmonious physical development. Results. Child nutrition is characterized by excessive energy value, increased content and imbalance of macro- and micronutrients. At the same time, 12 % of children have excessive nutritional status, 14.8 % have disharmonious physical development due to very low body weight (7.4 %). Conclusion. As a result of the study, data were obtained characterizing the nutrition of children as irrational and inadequate, leading to changes in nutritional status and physical development.

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Control of safety of products intended for children: chemical and analytical support

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 328-333
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Larkina M.V., Goryacheva L.V., Egorchenkova O.E., Feiskhanov M.R.
Organization: Federal Scientifc Center of Hygiene n. a. F. F. Erisman
Summary:

Objective: to develop a method for measuring the concentrations of zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (cimate) and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate (ethylcymate) in aqueous extracts, which provides control of the level of migration of these substances into the aquatic environment and meets the requirements of TR CU 008 / 2011 «On the safety of toys», based on the gas chromatographic analysis method. Material and Methods. The object of the study included samples of the aqueous extract of rubber latex compositions that form the basis of children»s toys, standard samples of cymate, of ethylcymate, of carbon disulphide. Experimental studies have been carried out to develop a gas chromatographic method using a fame photometric detector, a capillary column and an analysis of the equilibrium vapor- gas phase. Results. It was found out that the quantitative determination of cymate and ethylcymate in aqueous extracts is possible with the combination of chromatography of solutions of carbon disulfde in benzene and automatic dosing of the vapor phase (carbon disulfde released as a result of acid hydrolysis in the presence of tin chloride (II)). The efciency of the selected conditions of gas chromatographic analysis is shown. The conversion factor K, which characterizes the correction of the values obtained by analyzing the direct input of carbon disulfde in benzene and vapor phase analysis, is calculated. Conclusion. To control the safety of products intended for children, developed a method of measuring concentrations of cymate and ethylcymate the aqueous extracts of rubber latex products. The method is designed in the determination: 0,1 mg / dm3.

Analysis of working conditions of employees of Samara medical institutions

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №3 Pages: 427-433
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Tupikova D.S.
Organization: Samara State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: an analysis of the conditions and nature of the work of public health workers in the city of Samara, according to their own research and the results of a special assessment of working conditions for the development of preventive measures. Material and Methods. The study analyzed the results of assessing the factors of the production environment, such as microclimate and illumination in 70 rooms of two large medical institutions of the city of Samara. An estimation of the qualitative and quantitative microbial composition of the air medium in the analyzed rooms was carried out. The analysis of registration cards for a special assessment of the working conditions of workplaces in the same organizations was carried out between 2012 and 2017. Results. In analyzing the conditions and nature of the work of medical workers, it was revealed that the final class of working conditions for doctors and nurses of surgical departments was 3.3, therapeutic 3.2 as a result of biological factors. At the same time, the air in the working area of the study rooms of the surgical and therapeutic sections differed significantly in the structure of the conditionally pathogenic microflora. Physical and chemical factors did not exceed the level of class 3.1-3.2. Conclusion. An analysis of the results of the studies showed the need to optimize ventilation in the residents and nurses, as well as the need to improve the quality of natural and artificial lighting. The expediency of standardization of the conditionally pathogenic microflora of the air environment in class «B» premises is shown.

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Comparative hygienic assessment of working conditions and quality of life of urban and rural doctors

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 281-286
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Petrosyan А.А.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: assessment of the impact of labor peculiarities in urban and rural areas on the quality of life of doctors. Material and Methods. The study involved 198 doctors of various specialties from rural areas of the Saratov region and the city of Saratov. Sanitary hygienic examination of labor conditions and questionnaire SF-36 on quality of life assessment of health-care workers were conducted. Results. The objective hygienic characteristics of working conditions of city doctors of various specialties, and physicians working in rural areas are presented. It was found that doctors in rural areas are much more likely to combine work in the main and related specialties than urban ones: 31,6 and 15,6% respectively. It is important to note that the frequent combination of rural doctors in related professions also adversely affects the quality of their lives. Conclusion. The analysis of the results of the conducted research proves that when assessing the severity and intensity of the labor process of rural and urban health workers, it is necessary to take into account not only the working conditions but also the level of compatibility.

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