Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Hygiene

Organization of air basin monitoring according to the results of assessment of public health

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 77-82
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Kolomin V.V., Latyshevskaya N.I., Kudryasheva I.A., Eliseev Yu.Yu.
Organization: Astrakhan State Medical University, Saratov State Medical University, Volgograd State Medical University
Summary:

The aim is to determine the possibility of organizing monitoring of the air basin according to interregional comparative assessment of the nature of the incidence of environmentally related pathologies. Material and Methods. A comparative analysis of the incidence in the Volga regions by pathologies, the occurrence and development of which correlates with indicators of air pollution. An assessment of the results of socio-hygienic monitoring of the quality of the air basin. Results. Differences in the intensity and nature of dynamic changes in the incidence of environmentally caused pathologies in the regions and their inconsistency with the air quality parameters defined in the framework of socio-hygienic monitoring are established. In the Volgograd region, there is a pronounced tendency to reduce the incidence of children with allergic rhinitis (r=-0.78; R2=61.6%), congenital anomalies (malformations) (r=-0.84; R2=71.3%) and dynamics stabilized incidence of pathologies of the endocrine system, in the Saratov region, the indicators of all these pathologies are stable in dynamics, and in the Astrakhan region their marked, significant growth is noted (allergic rhinitis r=+0.77; R2=58.7%, congenital anomalies r=+0.9; R2=81.8%, endocrine system diseases r=+0.93; R2=86.6%). Differences in the organization of air quality monitoring were revealed. In 2018, the concentration of 25 pollutants was monitored in the Volgograd Region (18,290 studies were conducted), in the Saratov Region — 20 pollutants (4,512 studies), in the Astrakhan Region —11 chemical compounds (1,704 studies). Conclusion. An interregional comparative assessment of the nature of the incidence of environmentally caused pathologies can be used to determine the potential air pollution by the corresponding chemical compounds and can serve as a basis for establishing priority pollutants to be controlled in a particular region.

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Actual nutrition and food status of children with alimentary-dependent pathology

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 333-337
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Setko A.G., Mryasova Zh.K., Terekhova E.A., Tyurin A.V.
Organization: Orenburg State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: to study the actual nutrition and nutritional status of children with nutritional-dependent pathology. Material and Methods. The object of the study was 100 children aged 3–11 years, with a clinical diagnosis of alimentary-dependent pathology (functional dyspepsia (K30) and chronic gastritis (K29.3-K29.5)). Evaluation of the actual nutrition of children was carried out in organized children»s groups questionnaire based on 24-day reproduction of food. Nutritional status was assessed by the Quetelet index, physical development was assessed by somatometric indicators (height, body weight, chest circumference) using centile tables with and harmonious physical development. Results. Child nutrition is characterized by excessive energy value, increased content and imbalance of macro- and micronutrients. At the same time, 12 % of children have excessive nutritional status, 14.8 % have disharmonious physical development due to very low body weight (7.4 %). Conclusion. As a result of the study, data were obtained characterizing the nutrition of children as irrational and inadequate, leading to changes in nutritional status and physical development.

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Control of safety of products intended for children: chemical and analytical support

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 328-333
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Larkina M.V., Goryacheva L.V., Egorchenkova O.E., Feiskhanov M.R.
Organization: Federal Scientifc Center of Hygiene n. a. F. F. Erisman
Summary:

Objective: to develop a method for measuring the concentrations of zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (cimate) and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate (ethylcymate) in aqueous extracts, which provides control of the level of migration of these substances into the aquatic environment and meets the requirements of TR CU 008 / 2011 «On the safety of toys», based on the gas chromatographic analysis method. Material and Methods. The object of the study included samples of the aqueous extract of rubber latex compositions that form the basis of children»s toys, standard samples of cymate, of ethylcymate, of carbon disulphide. Experimental studies have been carried out to develop a gas chromatographic method using a fame photometric detector, a capillary column and an analysis of the equilibrium vapor- gas phase. Results. It was found out that the quantitative determination of cymate and ethylcymate in aqueous extracts is possible with the combination of chromatography of solutions of carbon disulfde in benzene and automatic dosing of the vapor phase (carbon disulfde released as a result of acid hydrolysis in the presence of tin chloride (II)). The efciency of the selected conditions of gas chromatographic analysis is shown. The conversion factor K, which characterizes the correction of the values obtained by analyzing the direct input of carbon disulfde in benzene and vapor phase analysis, is calculated. Conclusion. To control the safety of products intended for children, developed a method of measuring concentrations of cymate and ethylcymate the aqueous extracts of rubber latex products. The method is designed in the determination: 0,1 mg / dm3.

Analysis of working conditions of employees of Samara medical institutions

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №3 Pages: 427-433
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Tupikova D.S.
Organization: Samara State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: an analysis of the conditions and nature of the work of public health workers in the city of Samara, according to their own research and the results of a special assessment of working conditions for the development of preventive measures. Material and Methods. The study analyzed the results of assessing the factors of the production environment, such as microclimate and illumination in 70 rooms of two large medical institutions of the city of Samara. An estimation of the qualitative and quantitative microbial composition of the air medium in the analyzed rooms was carried out. The analysis of registration cards for a special assessment of the working conditions of workplaces in the same organizations was carried out between 2012 and 2017. Results. In analyzing the conditions and nature of the work of medical workers, it was revealed that the final class of working conditions for doctors and nurses of surgical departments was 3.3, therapeutic 3.2 as a result of biological factors. At the same time, the air in the working area of the study rooms of the surgical and therapeutic sections differed significantly in the structure of the conditionally pathogenic microflora. Physical and chemical factors did not exceed the level of class 3.1-3.2. Conclusion. An analysis of the results of the studies showed the need to optimize ventilation in the residents and nurses, as well as the need to improve the quality of natural and artificial lighting. The expediency of standardization of the conditionally pathogenic microflora of the air environment in class «B» premises is shown.

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Comparative hygienic assessment of working conditions and quality of life of urban and rural doctors

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 281-286
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Petrosyan А.А.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: assessment of the impact of labor peculiarities in urban and rural areas on the quality of life of doctors. Material and Methods. The study involved 198 doctors of various specialties from rural areas of the Saratov region and the city of Saratov. Sanitary hygienic examination of labor conditions and questionnaire SF-36 on quality of life assessment of health-care workers were conducted. Results. The objective hygienic characteristics of working conditions of city doctors of various specialties, and physicians working in rural areas are presented. It was found that doctors in rural areas are much more likely to combine work in the main and related specialties than urban ones: 31,6 and 15,6% respectively. It is important to note that the frequent combination of rural doctors in related professions also adversely affects the quality of their lives. Conclusion. The analysis of the results of the conducted research proves that when assessing the severity and intensity of the labor process of rural and urban health workers, it is necessary to take into account not only the working conditions but also the level of compatibility.

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Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №4 Pages: 637-644
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Galstyan I.A., Nadejina N.M., Suvorova L.A., Kashirina O.G., Nugis V.Ju.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL) range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

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Comprehensive radiation survey and public health assessment in the vicinity of NPP

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №4 Pages: 633-637
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Samoilov A.S., Shandala N.K., Korenkov I.P., Romanov V.V., Filonova A.A., Novikova N.Ya.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim. For many years, SRC-FMBC carried out comprehensive monitoring of radiation-hygienic situation in order to assess the dynamics of the measurement of the environmental media, public health and to develop health and epidemiological measures to assure the public welfare. Matherial and methods. The radiation-hygienic conditions of the environment are assessed by comparing the obtained results with the regional background values. Result. The radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media within the NPP supervision area do not exceed typical regional background values. We studied the radionuclide concentrations in some foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, drinking water and other environmental media. The concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in foodstuffs are the same as in the similar foodstuffs from other regions and the whole Russia. This is due to global precipitation of 137Cs and 90Sr following the nuclear weapons tests and accident at the Chernobyl NPP of 1986. Conclusion. According to analysis of the main
health indicators of the public living around the NPP, general state of the adult and children public is healthy. There is no impact of the NPP on negative trends in some changing indicators of the adult and children public health.

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Register indicators of physical endurance of biological objects when running a treadmill and swimming with weights using computer video markerless tracking

Summary:

Purpose: to study the use of video tracking to assess physical endurance and indicators of biological objects fatigue when running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. Material and methods. Physical endurance evaluated by test facilities for running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. As the object of the studies used laboratory rats. Results. For indicators of physical endurance biological objects isolated areas running track of treadmill and electrical stimulation site, when swimming on the total area of the container isolated subarea near the water surface. With video tracking performed computer timing of finding biological object in different zones of the treadmill and containers for swimming. On the basis of data on the time location rats in a given zone apparatus for running and swimming, obtained in the dynamics of the test of physical endurance, build a "fatigue curves", quantified changes in the indices of hard work, depending on the duration of its execution. Conclusion. Video tracking allows to define the execution of physical work to overflowing with loads of aerobic and mixed aerobic-anaerobic power, establish quantitative indicators of changes in the dynamics of biological objects operability testing with the construction of "fatigue curve" and objectively determine the times of occurrence in experimental animals exhaustion when fails to perform physical work.

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The magnetic field near power lines in the Moscow region: the results of measurements and their analyze

Summary:

The aim: to analyze the real power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz) values near power lines. The material. Long-term measurements of the power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz) near power lines of 110 kV, 220 kVand 500 kVin the Moscow region. Methods. Measurements were made by tracks which were perpendicular to the wires. Length of tracks was up to 40 m. Sensor of measurer was located on 1.8 m under the ground. General quantity of measurement points were 1103. The results. Was obtained general characteristics of real values of strength of electric field and values of magnetic flux density depending to distance to the projection last wire near power lines. Conclusion. Analysis of the results has the values of the magnetic field of power lines correspond to the Russian rules in all cases. Using additional World Health Organization safety criteria for magnetic fields (the class of carcinogenic risks 2B) requires the expansion of the health safety zone 2-3 times.

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Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

Summary:

Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A) and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

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