Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Saratov State Medical University

www.sgmu.ru

Features of angiogenesis in skin tissue regeneration

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 104-107
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: Pronina Е.А., Stepanova T.V., Kiriyazi T.S., Maslyakov V.V., Ivanov A.N.
Organization: Saratov Medical University "Reaviz", Saratov State Medical University, Saratov State Technical University n.a. Yu.A. Gagarin
Summary:

Restoration and regeneration of tissues are complex processes involving a large number of signaling mechanisms. In this study possible mechanisms of angiogenesis during tissue regeneration are presented. One of these mechanisms is the creation of a new capillary layer by angiogenesis. Previously it was believed that high and rapid levels of capillary growth are necessary for optimal healing of tissues. But several studies have demonstrated that a period of vascular regression occurs after the growth of blood vessels in a wound, and the number of the newly formed vessels decreases until the number of the blood vessels is equal to the density of the vascular network in the intact tissue. Reduced inflammation and angiogenesis are features of optimal healing.

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Comparative characteristics of microcirculatory changes in white rats during subcutaneous implantation tests of polycaprolactone scaffolds containing vaterite and hydroxyapatite

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 98-103
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Ivanov A.N., Kurtukova М.О., Chibrikova Yu.A., Kustodov S.V., Tyapkina D.A., Bugaeva I.O., Norkin IA.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: comparative evaluation of skin microcirculatory functional changes over the implantation area of polycap-rolactone scaffolds with mineral carriers: vaterite and hydroxyapatite. Material and Methods. The experimental study was performed on 43 rats divided into three groups: two test groups and one negative control group. Polycaprolactone PCL-scaffolds containing ovalbumine and of no biocompatibility were implanted into the rats of negative control group (n=15). The implantation of PCL- scaffolds containing vaterite under their skin was performed on rats of the first test group, and animals of the second test group were implanted with PCL-scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite. The method of laser Doppler flowmetry was used to study the microcirculatory flow. Results. The constant increase in the perfusion index has been observed in the area of non-biocompatibile scaffolds implantation. Thechanges in local skin blood flow modulation have been also detected. The transient character of local microcirculatory responses with total normalization of skin perfusion and its mechanisms has been noticed by the 21st day of the trial following PCL-scaffolds with vaterite and hydroxyapatite implantation. Conclusion. The dynamic monitoring has allowed finding that mineralization of PCL-scaffolds with vaterite as well as hydroxyapatite leads to no prominent changes in skin perfusion at subcutaneous implantation tests on white rats suggesting the biocompatibility of these scaffold types.

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Morphometric parameters of cerebral arteries in the elderly

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 94-97
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Fomkina О.А., Gladilin Yu.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to identify the features of morphometric parameters of cerebral arteries in adults aged 55-74 years. Material and Methods. As a material of the study we used samples of anterior (АСА), middle (MCA), posterior cerebral (PCA), posterior connective (PCoA), basilar arteries (BA) and vertebral arteries (VA), seized at autopsy 21 corpses of adults who died in old age. External diameter, wall thickness and length of arteries were studied by morphometry. The lumen diameter was calculated as the difference between the outer diameter and the doubled wall thickness. The material was processed by variational-statistical method. Results. The article presents the average values and parameters of variability of the main morphometric parameters of arteries supplying the brain. The results of the comparative analysis with the average values typical for adults aged 21-90 years are presented. Conclusion. The length, wall thickness, outer diameter and lumen diameter of the cerebral arteries in adults 55-74 years are characterized by significant variability. In the studied age range, АСА and PCA are characterized by the same wall thickness; MCA and VAare the same wall thickness, outer diameter and lumen diameter. The wall thickness of BA and VA in the elderly is 28.1 and 17.9% higher than the average value typical for people 21-90 years.

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Morphometric parameters of the width of dental arches of lower jaw in doli-chomorphic skull by gender characteristic

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 91-94
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Efimova E.Yu., Krayushkin A.l., Efimov Yu.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective was to study the characteristics of the indicators of the width of the dental arches of the lower jaw at the dolichomorphic form of the skull. Material and Methods. The morphometric parameters of the width of dental arches of the lower jaw have been studied. The work was performed on 28 preparations of skulls of people of both sexes of mature age with physiological occlusion of teeth and dolichomorphic form of the skull. The width of the dental arch was measured between canines, premolars and molars. Results. The maximum value of the width of the dental arch in both men and women was observed in the region of the second molars from the vestibular side. The minimum value of the investigated parameter was revealed in the region of canines on the palatal side. The indicator of the width of both the vestibular and lingual dental arches increased from the level of the canines to the molar level. Conclusion. A significant increase in the parameters of the width of the vestibular dental arch of the lower jaw in men over similar indicators in women was revealed only at the level of canines and first molars, and the parameters of the lingual dental arch only at the level of the second premolars.

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Characteristics of clinical findings and diagnostics of acute cerebral venous circulation disorder in immediate period following neurosurgical intervention for peripheral lung cancer metastasis into brain

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 67-71
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Case report
Authors: Bazhanov S.P., Ulyanov V.Yu., Matveeva O.V., Tolkachev V.S., Shuvalov S.D.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

A rare case of cerebral venous circulation disorder in a female patient with peripheral cancer metastasis of the right lung upper lobe to the area of precentral and postcentral gyri of the left cerebrum hemisphere in the immediate post- surgical period is present. It has been shown that the diagnostics of impaired circulation throuth the superficial cerebral veins is rather complicated due to the lack of clinical symptoms specificity and poor sensitivity of neurovisualization methods.

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Variability and connections of parameters characterizing hip dysplasia in 4-7-year-old children

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 61-66
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Original article
Authors: Zotkin V.V., Anisimova Е.А., Bakhteeva N.Kh., Anisimov D.l.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to identify the variability and contingency of parameters characterizing the structure of the hip joint in children 4-7 years of age, among themselves and with the severity of dysplastic changes in the bone and soft tissue structures of the hip joint. Material and Methods. 132 children aged 4-7 years with dysplasia TBS with different degrees of severity of dysplastic changes (177 joints) were examined. The following characteristics of dysplasia joint were under the study: angular radiological parameters, cartilage defect, electroneuromyographic signs, indicators of the biomechanics of gait. The degree of dysplasia (mild, moderate, severe) was assessed by the method developed by the authors to determine the severity of hip dysplastic changes in points. Results. Light changes in the hip joint were diagnosed in 9 patients aged 4-7 years (15 joints); moderate dysplastic disorders were found in 74 patients (96 joints); pronounced signs of dysplasia were found in 49 patients (66 joints). The coefficient of variation of signs characterizing TDS dysplasia varies from 2.8 to 18.8%. The module of correlation coefficients characterizing the binding force of the studied features is in the range from 0.7 to 0.9. Conclusion. The angular radiological parameters, cartilage defect, electroneuromyographic signs, indicators of the biomechanics of gait characterized by considerable variability and are correlated with strong and close power among themselves and with the degree of dysplastic changes of the bone and soft tissue structures of TBS.

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Comprehensive comparative evaluation of results of surgical management of unstable distal tibia fractures

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 48-52
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Original article
Authors: Barabash Yu.A., Mandrov D.V., Balayan V.D.
Organization: Saratov Regional Clinical Hospital, Saratov State Medical University, Tuchkovskaya District Hospital
Summary:

Objective: to evaluate the outcomes of various methods of surgical interventions and functional properties of lower extremities in patients with complicated ankle fractures. Material and Methods. Clinical outcomes of 140 surgically managed patients with unstable bimalleolar and trimalleolar fractures were studied. 80 patients were managed with external fixation devices applied by original method (main group) and 60 patients were managed with submersible structures (comparison group). Results. Compared to submersible structures, the use of transosseous metalosteosynthesis has led to 100% ankle fracture unions. In early postsurgery period the index of average anatomic and functional result reached values of 93.4% corresponding to "good" and 6.6% corresponding to "satisfactory". Conclusion. It has been established with rheovasography data that transosseous osteosynthesis contributed to restoration of blood microcir-culation in the damaged segment of lower extremity in 8 weeks period after surgery and submersible structures in 6 months period.

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Local effect of vitamin D on the immune system of periodontium

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 41-47
Heading: Stomatology Article type: Review
Authors: Ostrovskaya L.Yu., Zakharova N.B., Bodyleva А.Р., Bulkina N.V., Lysov A.V., Osipova U.L.
Organization: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

 Literature review is devoted to the analysis of scientific findings about extraosseous effects of vitamin D on the immune system of the periodontal tissues. It was found that the biological functions of vitamin D (VD) in the body are diverse.Along with the detailed study of the effect on metabolic processes in bone tissue, VD makes a significant contribution to a large number of processes that ensure the activity of the immune system. In addition, VD increases the production of "endogenous antibiotics". This allows us to consider VD as a therapeutic agent that prevents the development of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in population with simultaneous slowing of bone loss and preservation of bone mass of the dentofacial system. Currently detected hidden hypovitaminosis VD in almost majority of the population is considered a leading factor in the development of periodontal disease and its prevention and treatment is one of the most important tasks of therapeutic dentistry.

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Congenital megakaryoblastic leukemia: A clinical case

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 34-40
Heading: Pediatrics Article type: Case report
Authors: Nechaev V.N., Chernenkov Yu.V., Mishina O.A., Fedorova Yu.A., Averyanov A.P.
Organization: Clinical Perinatal Center of the Saratov Region, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Leukemia in children (leukemia) is a systemic hemoblastosis, accompanied by a violation of bone marrow hemato- poiesis and replacement of normal blood cells with immature blast cells of the leukocyte series. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia-one of the rarest forms of acute leukemia (1-3% of all leukaemias), which is characterized by the presence in the blood and bone marrow, along with undifferentiated blasts also megakaryoblasts, ugly megakaryocytes and platelet clusters. The work presents a clinical case of congenital acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in the child S., combined with the mosaic form of Down syndrome and a congenital heart defect.

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Gender peculiarities of cardiovascular pathology in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 28-33
Heading: Internal Diseases Article type: Original article
Authors: Ryabova A.Yu., Kozlova I.V., Shapovalova T.G., Shashina M.M., Veselov V.V., Zemlyanskaya O.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpuse: to research the gender-specific features of cardiovascular disease in the group of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective research of 419 patients hospitalized with exacerbation of COPD to the Pulmonology Department of Saratov Clinical Hospital №8 from 2015 to 2017 By the method of independent target sample, taking into account gender and multimorbidity 169 patients with COPD and cardiovascular disease were included into the research. Results. Relation between the nosological forms and the frequency of occurrence of cardiovascular pathology in the group of patients with COPD is gender- dependent. Gender features of heart remodeling in the group of patients with COPD and cardiovascular pathology are revealed. Women have more therapy adherence. Conclusion. The data that we obtained indicate the characteristics of the formation and course of the cardiovascular pathology in patients with COPD gender-dependent. Research of the features determines the optimal tactics of treatment, improves the prognosis and quality of life of co-morbid patients.

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