Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Review

The role of mTOR in reprogramming of tumor associated macrophages and in cancero-genesis (review)

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 115-121
Heading: Рathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: Martynova T.N., Malyshev I.Yu.
Organization: A. I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology
Summary:

Macrophages are heterogeneous population of cells, which differentiate into distinct functional groups depending of the external signals. Agonists of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines bind to corresponding receptors and cause changes in the metabolism and expression of genes in myeloid cells located in the innate immune system. These changes in phagocytes are occurring during their activation. As a result, they become polarized, acquiring a determined phenotype. This gene expression changes realize in the tumor microenvironment. mTOR — serine/threonine protein kinase, which receives various signals from cell environment. It causes changes in protein biosynthesis and cell metabolism. mTOR takes part in the activation of macrophages influenced by cytokines or agonists of TLRs. It determines the role of kinase in reprogramming mechanisms and in the regulation of cytokines production according to the type of received signals respectively. The review has been made about the role of mTOR in macrophages' reprogramming, in particular tumor-associated ones. The PubMed resource is used for information search

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Some features of pathogenesis of the course, diagnosis and treatment of radicular and myelopathic syndromes of cervical osteochondrosis (review)

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 64-68
Heading: neurosurgery Article type: Review
Authors: Chekhonatskiy А.А., Komleva N.E., Chekhonatskiy V.A., Bubashvili A.l.
Organization: KSMA — branch of the Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Hygiene, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The review of the literature data on the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of radicular and myelopathic syndromes of cervical osteochondrosis is presented. The issues of differentiated diagnosis of radiculopathic and myelopathic syndromes are considered. The characteristic of various methods of treatment is given. The efficiency and possibility of using electrostimulation of the spinal cord for the treatment of radicular and myelopathic syndromes of cervical osteochondrosis have been studied.

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Pathogenic peculiarities of post-traumatic knee osteoarthrosis: analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies (review)

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 50-54
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Review
Authors: Zubavlenko R.A., Ulyanov V.Yu., Belova S.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The review presents the prospects of deeper research of post-traumatic osteoarthrosis etiology and pathogenesis. The contemporary diagnostic and treatment strategies are analyzed. Web-resources eLibrary and PubMed as well as scientific literature from the library of Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery were used as a source of data.

Keywords: osteoarthrosis
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Evaluation of efficiency of tactics to improve the preterm birth results (review)

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 17-23
Heading: Obstetrics and Gynecology Article type: Review
Authors: Yakovleva O.V., Glukhova T.N., Rogozhina I.E.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The review is devoted to the assessment of the effectiveness of measures to improve the outcome of preterm birth. An analysis of randomized multicenter studies from 2014 to 2019 of the database of the National Library of Medicine PubMed was carried out. Information is presented on the effectiveness of the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome, tocolytic therapy, neuroprotection of the fetus, systemic antibacterial therapy.

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Perioperative and long-term cesarean section complications: a systematic review

Summary:

The aim of the review is to analyze the complications of cesarean section (CS), the associated maternal and perinatal mortality, taking into account the economic development of the country, indications for CS, urgency, methods of surgery and anesthesia, and preventive measures. For a systematic review, a search was conducted on electronic research databases reporting maternal or perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with CS. The analysis included 167 studies, including 5,100,161 operations of CS and 8216 cases of maternal mortality meeting the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of complications associated with CS was calculated, the odds ratio (OR) and the relative risk (RR) with confidence interval (Cl) 95% were calculated. The risk of death for women in low- and middle-income countries who had CS was 7.6 per 1000 [95% Cl: 6.6-8.6]; in highly developed countries 0.6 per 1000 [95% Cl: 0.08-0.9]. In low-income countries, perinatal mortality was 84.7 per 1000 CS [95% Cl: 70.5-100.2]. Perinatal mortality in high-income countries is 12.7 per 1000 cops [95% Cl: 6.85-18.3]. The most common perioperative complications in CS were: bleeding (OR=0.52 [95% Cl: 0.48-0.57]), infection (OR=13.4 [95% Cl: 9.7-22.3]) and venous thromboembolism (OR=1.4 [95% Cl: 1.2-3.5]). Low-income countries have high maternal mortality and require optimized conditions for CS. A significant increase in the incidence of CS in high-income countries did not lead to a corresponding decrease in neonatal morbidity and mortality, but it increased the risk to the health and life of women.

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Analysis of foreign practices for the safe management regulation of waste containing very low active manmade radionuclides (review)

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №4 Pages: 971-976
Heading: Тhematic supplement Article type: Review
Authors: Barchukov V.G., Kochetkov О.А., Kuznetsova L.I., Maksimov A.A.
Organization: State Research Center— Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Today, wastes that have specific activities lower than those assigned to solid radioactive waste, but higher than levels permitted for unrestricted use are enclosed in a legal vacuum. This fact necessitates searching for legislative and regulatory solutions. In order to find the most acceptable solution, this review examines the practice of solving similar problems in countries with developed nuclear energy. Recommendations of international organizations on the development of a safe management system of such waste are reviewed as well. Based on the information presented in this review, the allocation of this waste category including the establishment of legislative and regulatory requirements for its safe management seems the most logical and taking into account the current practice of waste management in Russia.

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Evolution of the study of organ donation problems: from religious canons to sociological analysis (review)

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №4 Pages: 931-933
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Review
Authors: Petrov G.S., Krom I.L., Yerugina M.V., Kovalenko E.M.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The review was based on the materials of 21 titles of scientific works in information systems databases PubMed and electronic library. The process of evolution of the analysis of problems related on transplantation of human organs is carried out from a religious basis to an ethical and legal, and later on, sociological. According to the authors, the leading role in global understanding of the organ donation problems in world science belongs to sociology and its directions. In this regard, the involvement of sociologists to participate in the promotion of posthumous donation in Russia should be an important step towards the creation of a national organ transplantation programs.

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Internal quality control of medical care in scientific publications and regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation (review)

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №4 Pages: 925-930
Heading: public health Article type: Review
Authors: Chubirko M.I., Chubirko Yu.M., Antonenkov Yu.E.
Organization: Voronezh State Medical University n.a. N.N. Burdenko
Summary:

The review is devoted to the current state of the problem of activity, which is assigned to each medical organization without taking into account the forms of ownership: the organization of internal quality control and safety of medical activity in medical organizations in Russia. The authors analyzed scientific publications, regulatory legal acts and laws on internal quality control and safety of medical activities at present and made recommendations on the issue under consideration.

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. Actual problems of provision of Russian healthcare with specialists with secondary medical education (analytical review)

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №4 Pages: 909-916
Heading: public health Article type: Review
Authors: Novokreshchenova I.G., Chunakova V.V., Semikina N.A., Aranovich L.M.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

According to the literary sources and official statistics it was revealed that high needs in the paramedical personnel preserve in medical organizations of different levels and profile and in the whole industry. The mechanisms of forming of deficit of paramedics in the healthcare system of our country were considered. Within the framework of authorial approach the article presents basic directions of solving the problems of staffing of local healthcare system with specialists with secondary medical education.

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Information systems perspectives in the improvement of dental care quality (review)

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №4 Pages: 888-893
Heading: public health Article type: Review
Authors: Bragina М.G., Fomina A.V.
Organization: Peoples' Friendship University of Russia
Summary:

The analysis of literature data on the possibilities and prospects for the use of information technologies (IT) to improve the efficiency and quality of dental medical care (QDMC) to the population has been performed. The need for the introduction of IT systems as part of pilot projects in dental facilities was noted. According to a number of researchers, the prospects for introducing medical information systems (IS) are associated with increasing the supporting business processes. The results of a number of studies are presented in which it is demonstrated that the use of the software systems proposed by different authors allows for the operative control of the QDMC with the evaluation of medical personnel, as well as for improving the effectiveness of treatment and optimizing the patient flow. It is indicated that the electronic method of collecting, storing and processing data makes it possible to combine the efforts of specialists who are participants in the process of providing dental care to the population in a single information field, which undoubtedly should make a significant contribution to improving the efficiency of their treatment.

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