Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Original article

Computer analysis of corneal aberrations in relation to the tasks of laser surgery of the anterior segment of the eye

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 425-428
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Bakutkin V.V., Bakutkin I.V., Zelenov V.A., Nugaeva N.R.
Organization: International Consulting, Audit and Education Academy, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: development of a method for computer analysis of corneal aberrations as applied to the tasks of laser surgery of the anterior segment of the eye. Material and Methods. As a result of mathematical modeling, an algorithm has been developed that is implemented as a computer program for selecting individual parameters of laser radiation depending on the optical characteristics of the cornea. Results. For astigmatism, it has been proposed to consider the topographic zones of the optical center of the cornea, 3.5 mm in diameter, and peripheral meridional zones. Aberrations at the periphery of the cornea increase by 10 %. At 1 and 2 stages of keratoconus, the rate of aberrations rises 2–3 times. In the third stage of keratoconus, in some cases keratometry and keratotopography is technically impossible. With pterygium 2 and 3 degrees, laser surgery in the peripheral zone of the cornea is impossible. Conclusion. Improving the efciency of laser operations is provided primarily by optimizing the impact parameters on the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. The data on the types of corneal aberrations for various diseases, which indicate the need to change the parameters of laser exposure. The developed diagnostic algorithms are implemented as a computer program and allow you to optimize the parameters of laser irradiation of eye tissue.

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The use of autologous conditioned platelet rich plasma in the surgery of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with central, paracentral and peripheral tears

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 422-425
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Arsyutov D.G.
Organization: Republican Clinical Ophthalmologic Hospital, Сhuvashia
Summary:

Purpose: to evaluate the efectiveness of surgical treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with central, paracentral and peripheral tears using autologous conditioned platelet rich plasma (ACP), without endolaser photoco- agulation and silicone oil tamponade. Material and Methods. The operative technique consists of carrying out 25 & 27 Ga vitrectomy, removing the posterior hyaloid membrane, the inner limiting membrane in the presence of a macular hole, pneumoretinopexy. ACP, devoid of leukocytes and containing 1.5–3 times more platelets that found in whole blood is then instilled into the central, paracentral and / or peripheral retinal tears in 2–3 layers including retina around the tear. 59 patients with visual acuity from the correct visual projection to 0.9 were treated. Results. The retina was reattached in 96.6 % of patients and the retinal tears were blocked; two patients with multiple peripheral tears underwent operation. Over a 1–12 months follow up period, 4 recurrent retinal detachments were recorded, which also required repeat surgery. In 93.2 % of patients complete retinal reattachment and blocking of the retinal defect was achieved. The visual acuity of the operated patients was 0.03–0.9. Conclusion. 25 & 27 Ga vitrectomy of retinal detachment with central, paracentral and peripheral tears and blocking of retinal defects with ACP without endolaser photocoagulation of the retina and silicone tamponade is a method that enables total retinal reattachment and better functioning of the operated eye to be achieved in most cases.

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Efects of combined treatment for non-infectious uveitis with macular edema on cytokine composition of lacrimal fuid

Summary:

Purpose: to study the efects of combined treatment for non-infectious uveitis with macular edema using platelet autoplasmin to estimate the cytokine content in lacrimal fuid. Material and Methods. 120 people aged 18 to 50 years with non-infectious uveitis and macular edema were examined: 46 men, 74 women. The patients were divided into 2 groups: main group (anti-infammatory treatment and the administration of platelet autoplasma); comparison group (anti-infammatory treatment). Patients underwent standard ophthalmological examination. To assess the activity of local infammatory process a study of cytokine content in the lacrimal fuid before and after treatment was conducted. Results. In patients with non- infectious uveitis the use of platelet autoplasma in the treatment of patients assigned to the main group lead to a statistically signifcant increase in the concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A in the lacrimal fuid. A statistically signifcant decrease in the concentrations of proinfammatory cytokines was observed when auto-plasma was used. Conclusion. The use of platelet autoplasma in the treatment of patients with non-infectious uveitis with macular edema is pathogenetically justifed, as it is associated with a pronounced decrease in the activity of the immuno-infammatory process, which is confrmed by the

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On preparation of am-niotic membrane as a scafold for cultivated cells to create corneal bioengineering constructs

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 409-413
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Aleksandrova OI, Gavrilyuk IO, Mashel TV, Chernysh VF, Churashov SV, Kulikov AN, Blinova MI.
Organization: Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Military Medical Academy n.a. S. M. Kirov, St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
Summary:

Aim: to determine the preparation of amniotic membrane (AM) necessary for its use as a scafold for cultured cells to create bioengineered constructions (BEC). Material and Methods. Native AM was placed in a special clamping device and subjected to additional mechanical, thermal and enzymatic treatment: removal of mucus residues from its surface and cryoconservation of AM scafolds was performed at –80°C, — 20°C with subsequent decellularization with a 0.25 % Tripsin-EDTA mixture. The lifetime assessment of the morphology of cells cultivated on AM scafolds was performed using a Nikon Eclipse TS100 inverted microscope equipped with camera. The viability and metabolic activity of AM cells was determined by means of an MTT test using a UNIFLAN AIFR-01 tablet spectrophotometer (Picon, Russia) at a wavelength of 570 nm and a reference wavelength of 620 nm. Results. It has been established that the presence of mucous residueson the surface of native AM, which are not removed during standard mechanical processing, negatively afect the survival of the cell test system. The efects of cryoconservation of AM scafolds revealed the positive efects of this process together with enzymatic decellularization for improving the viability of cells cultured on scafolds. Conclusion. Standard mechanical processing of native AM does not guarantee complete cleaning of its surface from mucus residues that interfere with adhesion and even distribution of cultured cells. It is necessary to reliably control the removal of AM surface mucus before immobilization and further manipulations. Cryopreservation and subsequent decellularization of AM scafolds contributes to the increased viability of the cell test system. AM scafolds, purifed from amniotic mucus, cryopreserved at –80 ° C in a mixture of DMEM-F12 and DMSO (1:1) and enzymatic decellularization after thawing, turned out to be the best of the studied substrates for cell cultivation.

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The relation of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and markers of endothelial dysfunction in animals with absolute insulin defciency at biostimulation by autotransplantation of the skin fap

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 379-38
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Popykhova E.B., Ivanov A.N., Stepanova T.V., Pronina E.A., Lagutina D.D.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The purpose of this work is to study the relationship of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and markers of endo-thelial dysfunction in animals with absolute insulin defciency at biostimulation by autotransplantation of the skin fap. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 60 male white outbred rats, which were divided into: an intact control group, a two comparative and an experimental group. In animals of the comparison group, alloxan diabetes mellitus (DM) was caused, in rats from the experimental group, an autotransplantation of the skin fap was performed against the background of developed alloxan diabetes. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined. Results. Autotransplantation of the skin fap causes a normalization of the glycemic profle in animals of the experimental group, and also reduces subclinical infammation caused by hyperglycemia and stabilizes the expression of VEGF.Diabetes causes an increase in HbA1c by 69 % and CRP by 11 %, while аutotransplantation of the skin fap leads to a decrease in the concentration of HbA1c by 28 % and CRP by 7 %. Conclusion. Autotransplantation of the skin fap reduces the risk of microcirculatory disorders due to hyperglycemia and chronic subclinical infammation.

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Endothelial dysfunction in burn injury

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 377-379
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Morrison V.V., Bozhedomov A.Yu., Morrison A.V.
Organization: Russian State Medical University, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to estimate the level of markers of endothelial dysfunction in burn injury of various severities. Material and Methods. 57 patients were included in the study. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothe-lin, nitric oxide metabolites (NO), and the amount of circulating desquamated endothelial cells were determined in the dynamics of burn injury development. Results. In burn injury there was an increased amount of endothelial dysfunction markers in blood, which is highly expressed on the 7-15th day. Moreover on the 7th day in case of severe and extremely severe burn injury the level of VEGF was increased over 50 times while the amount of endothelin, nitric oxide metabolites and circulating desquamated endothelial cells becomes higher in 3–5 times. Conclusion. The research outcomes have proved the damage of endothelial lining in burn injury.

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Pathophysiological evaluation of common neonatal factors of the pathogenesis of hemolytic anemia and infammation

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 372-376
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Geraskin V.A., Potemina T.E., Geraskin I.V., Komlev D.Yu.
Organization: Privolzhskiy Research Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to determine the damage of blood elements as tissue damage — to study hemolytic anemia from the position of infammation. Material and Methods. Clinical and laboratory data of 187 neonatal patients were included in the examination group. The dynamics of blood erythrocyte indices was studied taking into account the dependence on age, anthropometric parameters, the severity of diseases and the intensity of oxygenotherapy. The composition and features of oxidative modifcations of lipid structures of biological membranes of erythrocytes were investigated. Results. The values of the elements of alteration in the pathogenesis of hemolysis were determined. Changes of erythrocyte membranes in oxidative hemolysis were investigated. The review and comparison of the information contained in the classical and periodicals on pathological physiology, Hematology. Conclusion. The study damage to the blood elements as tissue damage allows you to apply for the study of hemolytic anemias the concept of development of infammation.

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Intense light deprivation as a factor in stress disorders of behavioral reactions and cognitive functions in the experiment

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 363-368
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Antipova O.N., Ivanov A.N., Zlobina O.V., Kirichuk V.F., Surovtseva K.A., Ankina V.D., Bondar G.D., Zenkina T.M., Polyukova M.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to study the efect of light desynchronosis on behavioral reactions and cognitive functions of white male rats. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 36 intact non-pedigree white male rats, which were divided into 2 groups: experimental and control. Animals were exposed to artifcial illumination 24 hours a day provided by the fuorescent lamp of 60 kW capacity. The same animals of the experimental group on the 10th, 21st and 30th days were tested in the installations «Dark-light camera» and «Open feld». Results. On the 10th day of intensive light deprivation, the indicators refecting the research-orientation activity reached the maximum values, which indicated the development of stress damage to the animal organism. On the 21st day of the experiment, the

Keywords: pneumocysts
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Structure of condylar cartilage in white rats after 60-day sodium benzoate intake and exposure to ionizing radiation

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 358-362
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Stepanenko I.G., Luzin V.I.
Organization: St. Luke Lugansk State Medical University
Summary:

Aim of the study is to investigate the structure of condylar cartilage of mandible in rats after 60-day of sodium ben-zoate intake and ionizing radiation exposure both separately and simultaneously and fnd possibility of correction of the alterations found with sea-buckthorn oil. Material and Methods. The study involved 240 white rats distributed into 8 groups. Animals received intragastric sodium benzoate in dosage of 1500 mg / kg of body weight and were exposed to ionizing radiation (total 4 Gr. in 4 sessions). Sea-buckthorn oil was used as the correction drug (300 mg / kg of body weight). Morphometry of the condylar cartilage included zones morphometry and relations of volume components. Results. Application of sodium benzoate resulted in the narrowing of proliferation and subchondral osteogenic zones and the decrease of amount of primary spongiosa and osteoblasts; in readaptation period the structure of the cartilage was gradually restored. Ionizing radiation led to similar alterations while restoration period was longer. Action of both sodium benzoate and ionizing radiation resulted in severe alteration with no restoration observed. Application of sea-buckthorn oil resulted in faster restoration of cartilage structure. Conclusion. Combined action of sodium benzoate and ionizing radiation resulted in severe alterations of the mandibular condylar cartilage structure. Application of sea-buckthorn oil reduces negative efects of the experimental conditions on morphological functional features of the mandibular condy-lar cartilage.

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Optimization of the process of creating models of human blood vessels

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 353-357
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Dol A.V., Ivanov D.V., Fomkina O.A.
Organization: Saratov National Research University n.a. N. G. Chernyshevsky, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to optimize the process of biomechanical modeling of blood vessels on the example of creating models of the arterial circle of the brain. Material and Methods. Biomechanical modeling requires the creation of a patient-oriented three-dimensional solid-state geometric model of the object under study. This problem can be solved by computer data processing (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) tomography. A program that implements the construction of blood vessel contours on individual sections of MRI in semi-automatic mode. These contours are exported as saved curves in a specifc format to SolidWorks, where they are used to create three-dimensional models of blood vessels. The models obtained in this way take into account the personal characteristics of the structure of the vascular bed of a particular patient and can be used in the process of biomechanical modeling. Results. The results of the program implementation of the recursive frontal growth method for processing two- dimensional slices of tomograms are presented. Conclusion. The developed software allows semi- automatic loading of DICOM images and obtaining fat sections of vessels on their basis, as well as transferring them for further processing into computer-aided design systems.

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