Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Original article

Age-related features of visual evoked potentials in the norm and at myopia

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 690-695
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Sharipov A.R., Mikhaylova G.M., Mukhamadeev R.A.
Organization: Republican Clinical Oncology Dispensary of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Eye and Plastic Surgery Center
Summary:

The purpose of the study is to compare age-related features of the visual analyzer formation using the method of visual evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with myopia and with "normal" vision. Material and Methods. A total of 42 people (84 eyes) were examined using the following methods: the study of visual acuity, determination of clinical refraction and registration of visual evoked potentials. The age of the patients ranged from 6 years to 31 years of age. In the group of volunteers, there were 3 age groups and 1 group with myopia. Results. The average values for the first group with monocular stimulation and lead from the ipsilateral hemisphere were obtained: 79.7±0.8, 111.8±1.2 and 157.5±1.8 ms for N75, P100 and N145 respectively (M±SE). For the second group: 77.5±1.9, 104.1±1.2 and 142.7±1.3 ms. For the third group: 78.7±0.7, 103.9±1.1 and 136.8±2.3 ms. For the fourth group: 71.4±3.9, 111.6±3.7 and 158.3±3.6 ms. Significant differences were shown in the configuration, component composition and characteristics of the pattern-VEP during stimulation of the central and peripheral fields of vision. Significant differences were found in the degree of maturity of macular region of subjects with normal vision and with myopia. Conclusion. The detected differences in visual analyzer formation indicate that primary sensory mechanisms and mechanisms of their cognitive analysis matured at different times in healthy subjects and patients with myopia.

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Tactical approaches to management of patients with macular pathology

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 683-687
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Chuprov A.D., Borshchuk E.L., Voronina A.E., Lositskiy А.О.
Organization: S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

The purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of tactical approaches to macular pathology treatment based on retrospective data analysis. Material and Methods. Between 2014 and 2019, 12007 courses of treatment of patients with macular pathology (1372 patients) were conducted at the S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution, Orenburg branch. 69.5% of patients were diagnosed with "Macular and posterior pole degeneration" (H35.3), "Retinal angiomatosis" (H35.0) was diagnosed in 11.3%, cases with "Other specified retinal disorders" (H35.8) 9.4%. Results. Comparison of the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was made and 2 groups were distinguished: group 1 consisted of patients with negative dynamics, group 2 included patients with positive dynamics. Among all patients, the best values of BCVA were in patients diagnosed with "Other specified retinal disorders", while BCVA improved by 0.13 in most patients with this nosology, in case of macular edema (1.8% of the sample), an improvement in BCVA by 0.13 was also noted. Tactical approaches were analyzed in patients with the best BCVA values, and it was found that intravitreal injection of drugs (IVID) more often led to an increase or stabilization of BCVA in patients with various pathologies of the macular zone. In the sample the majority of patients with macular pathology were diagnosed with "Macular and posterior pole degeneration", 65.35% of patients in this nosological group had positive dynamics in BCVA in the course of 3 years. Conclusion. The most effective method of treating patients with the diagnosis "Macular and posterior pole degeneration" was intravitreal injection of angiogenesis inhibitors (Aflibercept and Ranibizumab) according to the regimen described in the instructions for these drugs.

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Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of astigmatism correction methods in cataract surgery

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 678-683
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Chuprov A.D., Begun D.N., Lositskiy А.О., Kazakova T.N., Voronina A.E.
Organization: S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of methods of astigmatism correction in the surgical treatment of cataract. Material and Methods. Analysis of 157 cases (eyes) of surgical treatment of cataract with concomitant astigmatism was carried out, of which 131 eyes were operated using the ARKUATA method and 26 were operated using the TORIKA method. The age of patients ranged from 40 to 72 years. Results. As a result of the study we obtained statistically substantiated data, which showed that there were no objective differences in the compared methods for correcting corneal astigmatism: the formation of arcuate relaxing incisions and the use oftoric lOLs. Using the classification tree method, a model for predicting positive effect of the outcome of an operation with a value of un-corrected visual acuity of 1.0 was built. Conclusion. Both methods, in the absence of complications, can correct corneal astigmatism with the same statistical probability, allowing to achieve an uncorrected visual acuity of 1.0. However, from an economic point of view, the cataract surgery is most optimally performed using toric lOLs, as the cost of this treatment is 29.83% lower than when using femtosecond technologies.

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Comparative characteristics of melatonin content in lacrimal fluid and blood serum depending on the stage of senile cataract with age-related macular degeneration

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 673-678
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Khodzhaev N.S., Chuprov A.D., Smolyagin A.I., Kim S.M., Filippova Yu.V.
Organization: S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

The purpose of the study is to evaluate factors affecting concentration of melatonin in the tear and blood serum in patients with a non-exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Material and Methods. 140 patients (140 eyes) were examined, of which 52% were women, 48% were men. The following groups of patients were formed: 1) patients with non-exudative AMD and senile cataract who took melatonin; 2) patients with non-exudative AMD and senile cataract who did not take melatonin; 3) without AMD and cataract; 4) patients with non-exudative AMD, not requiring surgical treatment of cataract; 5) patients with neovascular (exudative) form of AMD (nAMD). The melatonin content was determined using immunosorbent assay. Results. The content of melatonin in all examined patients' serum ranged from 0.001 to 0.161 ng/ml, the highest median of melatonin values was observed in healthy individuals (0.125 ng/ml), and the lowest in patients with nAMD (0.021 ng/ml). The level of melatonin in the tear varies from 0.067 to 0.477 ng/ml, while its highest median was found in group 1 patients: 0.324 ng/ml. In group 2 and reference groups (without cataract with AMD and with nAMD), the melatonin content in the tear was significantly reduced (p <0.05) compared with the level in the group of healthy individuals. Conclusion. The content of melatonin in the blood serum and lacrimal fluid depends on the following factors: age, arterial hypertension, body mass index (BMI), insomnia, smoking, hair and eye color, night shifts. Using melatonin in the treatment of patients with AMD helps to increase the concentration of melatonin in tear.

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Comparative analysis of the content of biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction in women with preeclampsia and in the development of vascular retinal pathology

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 668-671
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Fil А.А., Sorokin E.L., Kolenko O.V.
Organization: Far Eastern Federal University, Postgraduate Institute for Public Health Workers, S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

Purpose: to study the level of markers of endothelial dysfunction (ED) in women with preeclampsia and with the development of retinal vein occlusions. Material and Methods. The main group was formed by 62 pregnant women with preeclampsia (124 eyes). Their age ranged from 22 to 43 years (30±6.9 years). The 1st comparison group was formed by 20 women with a physiological course of pregnancy, a comparable age and duration of pregnancy. The 2nd comparison group included 16 non-pregnant women with occlusions of the superior temporal branches of the central retinal vein (16 eyes). As a control group, 20 somatically healthy, non-pregnant women (40 eyes) were selected. Markers of ED were studied twice in the main and 1st comparison groups (III trimester of pregnancy and 6-8 months after delivery). In the control and 2nd comparison groups — once. Results. The levels of von Willebrand factor and endothe-lin-1, which are known to be the main markers of ED development, turned out to be high in women of the main group (109.3±33.2% and 2.69±1.49 ng/ml respectively), and in the 2nd comparison group (110.3±29.2% and 2.6±0.4 ng/ml respectively). Conclusion. Increased endothelin-1 in the tear fluid and von Willebrand factor in blood plasma in women with preeclampsia, as well as maintaining their high levels after 6-8 months, after childbirth may indicate the presence of generalized ED, which is a favorable background for the development of vascular retinal pathology in the remote postpartum period.

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Clinical and ophthalmic evaluation of the effectiveness of comprehensive treatment regimen for central serous chorioretinopathy

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 662-668
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Stanishevskaya О.М., Chernykh V.V., Bratko V.I., Bratko G.V., Poveshchenko O.V.
Organization: S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution, Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Summary:

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical-ophthalmological effectiveness of the developed complex treatment for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using subthreshold micro-pulse laser (SMILV) exposure with a wavelength of 577 nm combined with platelet autoplasm (TP) injections in the pterygopalatine fossa, which is the region of hemolymphocirculation. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 60 patients (60 eyes) with CSC. Patients were divided into 2 groups: in the comparison group patients received treatment with SMILV with a wavelength of 577 nm only, while in the main group they received treatment with SMILV and subsequent TP injections. The patients were prescribed 3 injections into the pterygopalatine fossa on the side of the affected eye, which is the region of the hemolymphocirculation, with the 72-hour-long interval between injections. SMILV was carried out on a Supra 577 nm laser (Quantel Medical, France) over the entire area of macular edema. Results. The results of the application of the developed and patented treatment for patients with CSC with the use of SMILV 577 nm combined with enriched TP injections are presented in the study. Comparative analysis of clinical and ophthalmic effectiveness of the proposed method of treatment was compared with monotherapy with SMILV 577 nm 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Conclusion. This method has been developed and introduced into clinical practice for combined treatment of patients with CSC. The study demonstrates great clinical and ophthalmic effectiveness of the combined treatment.

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Pedicled retinal pigment epithelium — choroid graft autotranslocation in scarred age-related macular degeneration

Summary:

The purpose of the study is to analyse the effectiveness of pedicled RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) — choroid graft autotranslocation in scarred neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treatment. Material and Methods. Pedicled RPE — choroid graft autotranslocation was performed on 8 patients with scarred wet AMD. Follow-up was from 6 to 30 months. Visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, optical coherent tomography and indocian-green angiography were analysed. Results. The average visual acuity increased from 0.009±0.006 to 0.018±0.022 (p=0.15). Visual acuity increased in 50% of the patients. In 50% of patients visual acuity decreased, which was associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy in post-op period with retinal detachment formation. No cases of choroidal neovascularization recurrence were detected. According to angiography data normal choroidal perfusion in the rotated RPE — choroid patch was revealed after 1 month during the follow-up examination. Conclusion. Pedicled RPE — choroid graft translocation can be successively performed in case of scarred neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

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Reasonable choice of a surgical method for rehabilitation of patients with defects of the iris

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 652-655
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Sobolev N.P., Bessarabov A.N., Shkandina Yu.V., Soboleva M.A.
Organization: S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

The purpose of the study is to develop an objective method for calculating the square of the iris defect area. Material and Methods. Clinical and functional surgical treatment results for 98 patients (98 eyes) with the consequences of traumatic damage of the eyeball's anterior part were analysed. The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 0.12±0.05, and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.41±0.15. Results. In orderto objectively assess the iris defect area, we developed a grid palette. We calculated the square of iris defect area using this palette in percent, after this surgical algorithm was determined. The visual functions in all patients after the treatment were increased and by the seventh day after the surgery were as follows: UCVA0.58±0.28; BCVA0.71±0.15. Conclusion. Using the designed palette for objective assessment of the iris defect area helps to choose the correct algorithm of surgery. In cases when the iris defect square is less than 30%, it is possible to use the technique of closed iridoplasty with patients own eye tissues. If the iris defect area is more than 30%, implantation of the iris-lens diaphragm is recommended.

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Flash visual evoked potentials and psychophysi-ological indicators of the visual system with visual acuity "hand motion"

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 647-652
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Sirotkina I.V., Gareev Е.М., Mikhaylova G.M., Shakirova E.R., Koshelev D.I.
Organization: Russian Eye and Plastic Surgery Center
Summary:

The purpose of the study is to investigate the distribution of the amplitude and time parameters of visually evoked potentials and their relationship with the psychophysiological indicators of the visual analyzer in visual acuity "hand motion". Material and Methods. Data from 85 eyes were analyzed: 36 eyes with predominant impairment of retinal functions, 36 eyes with predominant impairment of the optic nerve, and 13 eyes with the predominant impairment of the optical media of the eye. The LED flash response was registered on the Neuro-MVP-4 device. The severity of detection was assessed using the CAMEL software. The threshold of electrical sensitivity was measured on the ESOM-Comet device. Results. All the parameters under study had a significant variation. The latency of flash VEP components had statistically significantly higher values in the group with predominant dysfunction of the optic nerve (p<0.01). The amplitude of the VEP was significantly higher in the group with the impairment of the transparency of optical media of the eye (p<0.01). There were no close correlations between the amplitude-time parameters of the flash VEP and the psychophysiological parameters of the visual system (т<0.20, p>0.05). Conclusion. The methods under study can be used with different efficiency in monitoring the functional state of the visual analyzer. The obtained data indicate the need for comprehensive assessment of visual functions in the non-visible area for effective monitoring of residual visual functions.

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Analysis of six formulas for intraocular lens optic power calculation precision in eyes with axial length of 20-22 mm

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №2 Pages: 638-642
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Pershin K.B., Pashinova N.F., Likh I.A., Tsygankov A.Yu.
Organization: Ophthalmological clinics «Eximer»
Summary:

The purpose of the study was to conduct comparative analysis of the accuracy of IOL optical power calculation for eyes with an axial length of 20-22 mm and 22-24 mm. Material and Methods. 147 eyes of 104 patients were included in the study. The study group (I) included 56 patients (81 eyes) with short eyes (average axial eye length 21.17±0.56 (20.02-21.98 mm). Comparison group (II) consisted of 48 patients (66 eyes) with a normal axial length of 22.75±0.46 (22.0-23.77) mm. The IOL optical power was calculated using the SRK/T formula, and the retrospective comparison was made using the Hoffer-Q, Holladay 2, Olsen, Haigis and Barrett Universal I formulas. Results. Group I was characterized by statistically insignificant (p<0.05) differences in the average estimation error for Holladay 2, Hoffer-Q, SRK/T, Olsen and Barrett Universal II formulas (0.19±0.14, 0.23±0.08, 0.15±0.09, 0.21±0.13 and 0.17±0.21 D respectively). When using the Haigis formula, the smallest average estimation error was obtained (0.11±0.02), the differences are significant at the trend level (0.05

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