Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Рathophysiology

The role of mTOR in reprogramming of tumor associated macrophages and in cancero-genesis (review)

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 115-121
Heading: Рathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: Martynova T.N., Malyshev I.Yu.
Organization: A. I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology
Summary:

Macrophages are heterogeneous population of cells, which differentiate into distinct functional groups depending of the external signals. Agonists of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines bind to corresponding receptors and cause changes in the metabolism and expression of genes in myeloid cells located in the innate immune system. These changes in phagocytes are occurring during their activation. As a result, they become polarized, acquiring a determined phenotype. This gene expression changes realize in the tumor microenvironment. mTOR — serine/threonine protein kinase, which receives various signals from cell environment. It causes changes in protein biosynthesis and cell metabolism. mTOR takes part in the activation of macrophages influenced by cytokines or agonists of TLRs. It determines the role of kinase in reprogramming mechanisms and in the regulation of cytokines production according to the type of received signals respectively. The review has been made about the role of mTOR in macrophages' reprogramming, in particular tumor-associated ones. The PubMed resource is used for information search

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Pathogenic specifics of articular cartilage metabolism regulation at the initial stage of gonarthrosis

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №4 Pages: 939-943
Heading: Рathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Puchinyan D.M., Gladkova E.V., Karyakina E.M., Belova S.V., Romakina N.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to clarify specifics of articular cartilage metabolism regulation in early stages of gonarthrosis. Material and Methods. 66 women aged 41 to 60 у. o. (median age 49 years; Q25%=44; Q75%=55) were examined. The control (n=30) and the main (n=36) groups were arranged depending on knee osteoarthritis clinical and instrumental presentations, or their absence. The levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), interleukin-1 (3 (IL-1 (3) and superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD-2) in serum have been determined by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. Results. There was a statistically significant increase in the level of COMP in blood serum as well as the increase in number and strengthening of negative correlation between cytokinesand SOD-2 in women of the main group. Conclusion. The increased content of COMP in blood serum and the rise in number of negative correlations between SOD-2 on the one hand, and COMP, IL-1 (3 and VEGF-A on the other may be early osteoarthritis presentations in the examined individuals.

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Diagnostic implication of cytokines in musculoskeletal neoplasms

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №4 Pages: 934-939
Heading: Рathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Ponamarev I.R., Puchinyan D.M., Shchanitsyn I.N.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to analyze diagnostic significance of neopterin, VEGF, sICAM, sVCAM, IL-6, TNF-a and MMP-9 in determining the nature of tumor process in musculoskeletal neoplasms. Material and Methods. 64 patients with benign (44) and malignant (20) musculoskeletal tumors aged 18to65y. o. were examined. Neopterin, VEGF, sICAM, sVCAM, IL-6, TNF-a and MMP-9 in serum were studied by enzyme immunoassay (p=0.07). Results. A statistically significant increase in the expression of regulatory molecules, neopterin (p<0.001), VEGF (p=0.02), slCAM-1 (p<0.001), IL-6 (p<0.001), TNF-a (p=0.02) in particular has been discovered and a pronounced tendency for the increase of MMP-9 level has been in evidence. Using ROC analysis, threshold values for each parameter have been determined. The most informative cytokines (neopterin, sICAM and IL-6) have been identified with multivariable regression method. Conclusion. The levels of neopterin, slCAM-1, IL-6 in the serum of patients with malignant musculoskeletal neoplasms above the threshold values predict an unfavorable course of the disease.

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Distinctive features of morphological changes in renal tissue with different models of light desynchronosis

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №3 Pages: 697-700
Heading: Рathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Zlobina O.V., Ivanov A.N., Milashevskaya T.V., Bugaeva I.O.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: a comparative analysis of the morphological changes of the kidneys that occur with different models of light desynchronization. Material and Methods. The study was conducted in two stages on 60 white male rats. Model LL 0:24 was studied on the first and second experimental groups, which were in conditions of round-the-clock light exposure for 10 and 21 days. Model LD 18: 6 was studied in the third and fourth experimental groups, which were also in the experimental conditions for 10 and 21 days, respectively. The control group throughout the experiment was in vivo. Results. The recorded decrease in the size of the renal corpus in animals of the third and fourth groups is more persistent and pronounced compared with changes in the first group. The reduction in the area of the vascular glomeru-lus and the expansion of the Shumlyansky — Bowman capsule with round-the-clock illumination are observed only for 21 days, and when studying the 18:6 model, these figures are significantly different from the control values already on the 10th day of the experiment. Also, animals of the third experimental group recorded significant changes in thejuxta-medullary nephrons, which is associated with the activation of collateral blood flow on the 10th day of the experiment. Conclusion. The detected morphological changes indicate a stronger stress effect of the LD 18:6 model, compared with the LL 0:24 model. However, in both experimental groups, the observed changes are ischemic in nature, leading to the development of sclerotic changes, which can adversely affect the work of the kidneys and lead to the development of irreversible changes.

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