Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Human anatomy

Dimensional characteristics of periodontal fissure in adults with increased tooth abrasion according to dental computed tomography

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 108-114
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Kalmin O.V., Koretskaya Е.А., Zyulkina L.A.
Organization: Penza State University
Summary:

Aim is to analyze the dimensional characteristics of the width of the periodontal fissure in the teeth of the upper and lower jaws with increased tooth abrasion in adults. Material and Methods. 204 people of both sexes aged 22 to 60 years were served as the object of the study. Using cone beam computed tomography, the width of the periodontal fissure was studied at the level of transition of the upper third to the middle third of the root, at the level of transition of the middle third of the root to the lower third, and at the level of the apex of the tooth root. In the upper molars, the measurements were performed at the palatine root, in the molars of the lower jaw — at the distal root. Results. The dimensional characteristics of the width of the periodontal fissure on both jaws statistically significantly increase from the first period of adulthood to the second in persons of both sexes: in men at the level of the upper third of the root by 12.5-96.3%, the middle third —11.8-78.6%, tops of the tooth root —22.2-106.7; in women —by 2.4-65.8, 3.0-22.0and 19.1-93.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The results of the study indicate that the width of the periodontal fissure is not the same in different parts of the root, varies depending on the functional load and does not depend on the group affiliation of the tooth. The width of the periodontal fissure at the level of transition of the upper third of the root to the middle third, the middle third of the root to the lower third and in the region of the apex of the root in the teeth on the lower and upper jaw, statistically significantly increases from the first period of adulthood to the second in both men and women.

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Features of physical development of patients with gastric cancer

Year: 2020, volume 16 Issue: №1 Pages: 104-108
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Gorbunova Е.А., Gasanova D.M., Filkin G.N., Medvedeva N.N.
Organization: Krasnoyarsk Regional Clinical Dispensary, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University n. a. Professor V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky
Summary:

Purpose of this research was to identify features of somatometric, index and bioimpedance indicators in the assessment of the physical status of patients with gastric cancer in the Krasnoyarsk region. Material and Methods. In this report constitutes the results of the exploration of 200 patients diagnosed with stomach cancer, 108 women and 92 men. The average age is 61.6 ± 10.9 years. Patients with an established diagnosis of gastric cancer, were examined by anthropometric and bioimpedance methods of research. During the research of the physical status of patients with gastric cancer of different age groups at of both sexes was carried out, the index of body weight (IBW) or J. M. Tanner index (1951). By this index is calculated type of gender dimorphism. Results. Features of the physical development of patients with gastric cancer are received. There are the increased body weight and obesity, gynecomorphic type of men, women have a mesomorfic and gynecomorfic types of a constitution. According to the results of bioimpedance analysis the indexes of component composition of the body, decreased in men and women representatives gynecomorfic body type. Conclusion. The features of somatometric, index and bioimpedance indicators characterizing of the physical development of patients with gastric cancer were revealed.

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Topography features of the incisive canal in early adults

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №3 Pages: 690-696
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Kalmin O.V., llyunina 0.0., Zyulkina L.A.
Organization: Penza State University
Summary:

Aim is to study topography of incisive canal depending on sex, parameters of craniofacial complex and dentition. Material and Methods. 174 adult persons of both sexes aged 21-35 years (first adult persons) (80 men and 94 women) were objects of the research. Garson facial index, upper face index and average modulus of maxilla were determined. Number of Stensen foramen and foramen incisivum, their sizes and shape; distances between foramen incisivum and inferior palatal and inferior labial point of maxillary alveolar process; length, shape, type and angle of inclination of incisive canal; bone density around incisive canal were determined on CBCT. Results. Size of nasal and incisivum foramen, length of incisive canal is significantly higher in men, and distances between foramen incisivum and inferior palatal and inferior labial points of alveolar process is significantly higher in women. Dimensions of heart-shaped foramen incisivum prevailed over sizes of droplet-shaped and oval foramen incisivum, and oval-shaped sizes were the smallest. Length of hourglass-shaped incisive canal was 3.4% higher than length of funnel-shaped canal, and 5.6% more than cylindrical shaped ones; length of spindle-shaped incisive canal was 12.7% higher than length of cylindrical canal. Conclusion. Incisive canal has individual variability of sizes, shape and topography depending on its shape and type, gender, cephalotype and average modulus of maxilla were determined.

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Somatic sex determination of an adult by bone remains (review)

Summary:

The article presents a comprehensive osteoscopic approach based on the visual identification of high- quality semi-diagnostic signs on the bones. The differences in the bones of the skeleton in this approach are determined by the greater development of the muscles in men as compared with women, as well as the performance of a fertility function by the woman. On the pelvic bones, differences are functional in nature: the structure of the male pelvis is determined only by supporting and motor functions, and the structure of the female pelvis must also ensure the function of delivery. An osteometric approach is described to determine the somatic sex from the pelvic bones of a person, the basis of which is the use of the instrumental method of determining the properties of objects, fixed in numerical values. It has been shown that almost all bones of the skeleton have the signs of sexual dimorphism, however, they are most clearly expressed in the bones of the pelvis and skull. Determining the gender of bone remains requires a complete examination of the bones presented. It depends on the number of objects, their state, the completeness of the methods used, as well as on the preparation of the expert. A careful analysis of the greatest number of signs revealed on the bones will allow us to arrive at the most reliable result, which is important when establishing the identity of an unidentified corpse.

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Structure of condylar cartilage in white rats after 60-day sodium benzoate intake and exposure to ionizing radiation

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 358-362
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Stepanenko I.G., Luzin V.I.
Organization: St. Luke Lugansk State Medical University
Summary:

Aim of the study is to investigate the structure of condylar cartilage of mandible in rats after 60-day of sodium ben-zoate intake and ionizing radiation exposure both separately and simultaneously and fnd possibility of correction of the alterations found with sea-buckthorn oil. Material and Methods. The study involved 240 white rats distributed into 8 groups. Animals received intragastric sodium benzoate in dosage of 1500 mg / kg of body weight and were exposed to ionizing radiation (total 4 Gr. in 4 sessions). Sea-buckthorn oil was used as the correction drug (300 mg / kg of body weight). Morphometry of the condylar cartilage included zones morphometry and relations of volume components. Results. Application of sodium benzoate resulted in the narrowing of proliferation and subchondral osteogenic zones and the decrease of amount of primary spongiosa and osteoblasts; in readaptation period the structure of the cartilage was gradually restored. Ionizing radiation led to similar alterations while restoration period was longer. Action of both sodium benzoate and ionizing radiation resulted in severe alteration with no restoration observed. Application of sea-buckthorn oil resulted in faster restoration of cartilage structure. Conclusion. Combined action of sodium benzoate and ionizing radiation resulted in severe alterations of the mandibular condylar cartilage structure. Application of sea-buckthorn oil reduces negative efects of the experimental conditions on morphological functional features of the mandibular condy-lar cartilage.

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Optimization of the process of creating models of human blood vessels

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 353-357
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Dol A.V., Ivanov D.V., Fomkina O.A.
Organization: Saratov National Research University n.a. N. G. Chernyshevsky, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to optimize the process of biomechanical modeling of blood vessels on the example of creating models of the arterial circle of the brain. Material and Methods. Biomechanical modeling requires the creation of a patient-oriented three-dimensional solid-state geometric model of the object under study. This problem can be solved by computer data processing (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) tomography. A program that implements the construction of blood vessel contours on individual sections of MRI in semi-automatic mode. These contours are exported as saved curves in a specifc format to SolidWorks, where they are used to create three-dimensional models of blood vessels. The models obtained in this way take into account the personal characteristics of the structure of the vascular bed of a particular patient and can be used in the process of biomechanical modeling. Results. The results of the program implementation of the recursive frontal growth method for processing two- dimensional slices of tomograms are presented. Conclusion. The developed software allows semi- automatic loading of DICOM images and obtaining fat sections of vessels on their basis, as well as transferring them for further processing into computer-aided design systems.

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Morphometric parameters of cerebral arteries in the elderly

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 94-97
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Fomkina О.А., Gladilin Yu.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to identify the features of morphometric parameters of cerebral arteries in adults aged 55-74 years. Material and Methods. As a material of the study we used samples of anterior (АСА), middle (MCA), posterior cerebral (PCA), posterior connective (PCoA), basilar arteries (BA) and vertebral arteries (VA), seized at autopsy 21 corpses of adults who died in old age. External diameter, wall thickness and length of arteries were studied by morphometry. The lumen diameter was calculated as the difference between the outer diameter and the doubled wall thickness. The material was processed by variational-statistical method. Results. The article presents the average values and parameters of variability of the main morphometric parameters of arteries supplying the brain. The results of the comparative analysis with the average values typical for adults aged 21-90 years are presented. Conclusion. The length, wall thickness, outer diameter and lumen diameter of the cerebral arteries in adults 55-74 years are characterized by significant variability. In the studied age range, АСА and PCA are characterized by the same wall thickness; MCA and VAare the same wall thickness, outer diameter and lumen diameter. The wall thickness of BA and VA in the elderly is 28.1 and 17.9% higher than the average value typical for people 21-90 years.

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Morphometric parameters of the width of dental arches of lower jaw in doli-chomorphic skull by gender characteristic

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 91-94
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Efimova E.Yu., Krayushkin A.l., Efimov Yu.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective was to study the characteristics of the indicators of the width of the dental arches of the lower jaw at the dolichomorphic form of the skull. Material and Methods. The morphometric parameters of the width of dental arches of the lower jaw have been studied. The work was performed on 28 preparations of skulls of people of both sexes of mature age with physiological occlusion of teeth and dolichomorphic form of the skull. The width of the dental arch was measured between canines, premolars and molars. Results. The maximum value of the width of the dental arch in both men and women was observed in the region of the second molars from the vestibular side. The minimum value of the investigated parameter was revealed in the region of canines on the palatal side. The indicator of the width of both the vestibular and lingual dental arches increased from the level of the canines to the molar level. Conclusion. A significant increase in the parameters of the width of the vestibular dental arch of the lower jaw in men over similar indicators in women was revealed only at the level of canines and first molars, and the parameters of the lingual dental arch only at the level of the second premolars.

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Variability of linear parameters of frontal sinuses in adults

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 302-305
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Mareev O.V., Aleshkina O.Yu., Mareev G.O., Kuchmin V.N., Afonina O.I., Kapustina N.Yu.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to identify the variability of frontal sinuses size patterns divided by sex and age in adults. Material and Methods. 83 X-ray computer tomograms of the head of adults without any signs of paranasal sinuses pathology and without traces of surgery on the external structures and internal nose in the history were studied. Results. It has been found the best pneumatized frontal bones in males; the rapid growth of the frontal sinuses occurs more in men in the 1st age group, whereas in women, the formation of the frontal sinus is smoother and more uniform during the whole life. Conclusion. Men have depth prevailing characteristics of frontal sinuses in the 1st age group and the width on the left side in the 2nd age group differing significantly in comparison to women group; height of the sinus in men decreases with age, whereas in women it does not change its value significantly; bilateral values for the parameters of the frontal sinus do not have reliable sex and age differences.

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Anatomy of the posterior communicating artery

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 25-29
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Review
Authors: Fomkina О.А., Nikolenko V.N., Gladilin Yu.A.
Organization: First Moscow State Medical University n.a. I.M. Sechenov, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: to generalize and systematize the information available in the literature about the anatomy of the posterior connective arteries in adults. Scientific works (monographs, articles, dissertations and abstracts of dissertations) of native and foreign authors for the period from 1928 to 2017 were worked out to achieve the goal. Data on the variants of artery discharge, areas of blood supply and major anomalies are presented. The size characteristics of arteries (length, outer diameter, wall thickness and lumen diameter) are presented taking into account bilateral, age and sexual differences.

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