Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Lomonosov Moscow State University

Somatic sex determination of an adult by bone remains (review)

Summary:

The article presents a comprehensive osteoscopic approach based on the visual identification of high- quality semi-diagnostic signs on the bones. The differences in the bones of the skeleton in this approach are determined by the greater development of the muscles in men as compared with women, as well as the performance of a fertility function by the woman. On the pelvic bones, differences are functional in nature: the structure of the male pelvis is determined only by supporting and motor functions, and the structure of the female pelvis must also ensure the function of delivery. An osteometric approach is described to determine the somatic sex from the pelvic bones of a person, the basis of which is the use of the instrumental method of determining the properties of objects, fixed in numerical values. It has been shown that almost all bones of the skeleton have the signs of sexual dimorphism, however, they are most clearly expressed in the bones of the pelvis and skull. Determining the gender of bone remains requires a complete examination of the bones presented. It depends on the number of objects, their state, the completeness of the methods used, as well as on the preparation of the expert. A careful analysis of the greatest number of signs revealed on the bones will allow us to arrive at the most reliable result, which is important when establishing the identity of an unidentified corpse.

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Characteristics of changes in the number of yH2AX and Rad51 protein foci in human skin fibroblasts after prolonged exposure to low-dose rate X-ray radiation

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №4 Pages: 739-743
Heading: Genetics Article type: Original article
Authors: Ozerov I.V., Eremin P.S., Osipov A.N., Eremin I.I., Tsvetkova A.D., Guseva S.S., Ivanova K.Yu., Gavrilenko 0.I., Pustovalova M.V., Smetanina N.M., Grekhova A.K., Lazareva N.L., Pullin A.A., Maksimova О.A., Gordeev A.V., Bushmanov A.Yu., Kotenko K.V.
Organization: Lomonosov Moscow State University, State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: to compare the repair process of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells after acute versus prolonged exposure to X-ray irradiation with different dose rates. Material and methods. Studies were performed on primary human fibroblasts isolated from skin biopsies of healthy volunteers (women, 29 and 30 years). Cells were irradiated using an X-ray machine RUB RUST-M1 (JSC "Ruselectronics", Moscow, Russia) at 37°C temperature with a dose rate of 400 mGy/min (200 kV, 2*2.4 mA, a filter of 1.5mm AI) or 4 mGy/min (50 kV, 2*0.4 mA, a filter of 1.5 mm AI). Immuno-cytochemical protein staining was utilized for yH2AX and Rad51 foci analysis. Results. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (yH2AX) and the key protein of homologous recombination Rad51 foci formation and disappearance kinetics were investigated simultaneously in primary human dermal fibroblasts after acute and prolonged exposure to X-ray radiation at a same dose. It was shown that the relative yield of yH2AX foci per dose reduces with decrease in dose rate, while the relative yield of Rad51 foci conversely increases. Conclusion. Our findings suggest the fundamental differences in the ratio of non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination DNA repair in acute versus prolonged irradiated cells.