Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Ophtalmology

Computer analysis of corneal aberrations in relation to the tasks of laser surgery of the anterior segment of the eye

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 425-428
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Bakutkin V.V., Bakutkin I.V., Zelenov V.A., Nugaeva N.R.
Organization: International Consulting, Audit and Education Academy, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: development of a method for computer analysis of corneal aberrations as applied to the tasks of laser surgery of the anterior segment of the eye. Material and Methods. As a result of mathematical modeling, an algorithm has been developed that is implemented as a computer program for selecting individual parameters of laser radiation depending on the optical characteristics of the cornea. Results. For astigmatism, it has been proposed to consider the topographic zones of the optical center of the cornea, 3.5 mm in diameter, and peripheral meridional zones. Aberrations at the periphery of the cornea increase by 10 %. At 1 and 2 stages of keratoconus, the rate of aberrations rises 2–3 times. In the third stage of keratoconus, in some cases keratometry and keratotopography is technically impossible. With pterygium 2 and 3 degrees, laser surgery in the peripheral zone of the cornea is impossible. Conclusion. Improving the efciency of laser operations is provided primarily by optimizing the impact parameters on the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. The data on the types of corneal aberrations for various diseases, which indicate the need to change the parameters of laser exposure. The developed diagnostic algorithms are implemented as a computer program and allow you to optimize the parameters of laser irradiation of eye tissue.

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The use of autologous conditioned platelet rich plasma in the surgery of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with central, paracentral and peripheral tears

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 422-425
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Arsyutov D.G.
Organization: Republican Clinical Ophthalmologic Hospital, Сhuvashia
Summary:

Purpose: to evaluate the efectiveness of surgical treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with central, paracentral and peripheral tears using autologous conditioned platelet rich plasma (ACP), without endolaser photoco- agulation and silicone oil tamponade. Material and Methods. The operative technique consists of carrying out 25 & 27 Ga vitrectomy, removing the posterior hyaloid membrane, the inner limiting membrane in the presence of a macular hole, pneumoretinopexy. ACP, devoid of leukocytes and containing 1.5–3 times more platelets that found in whole blood is then instilled into the central, paracentral and / or peripheral retinal tears in 2–3 layers including retina around the tear. 59 patients with visual acuity from the correct visual projection to 0.9 were treated. Results. The retina was reattached in 96.6 % of patients and the retinal tears were blocked; two patients with multiple peripheral tears underwent operation. Over a 1–12 months follow up period, 4 recurrent retinal detachments were recorded, which also required repeat surgery. In 93.2 % of patients complete retinal reattachment and blocking of the retinal defect was achieved. The visual acuity of the operated patients was 0.03–0.9. Conclusion. 25 & 27 Ga vitrectomy of retinal detachment with central, paracentral and peripheral tears and blocking of retinal defects with ACP without endolaser photocoagulation of the retina and silicone tamponade is a method that enables total retinal reattachment and better functioning of the operated eye to be achieved in most cases.

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Efects of combined treatment for non-infectious uveitis with macular edema on cytokine composition of lacrimal fuid

Summary:

Purpose: to study the efects of combined treatment for non-infectious uveitis with macular edema using platelet autoplasmin to estimate the cytokine content in lacrimal fuid. Material and Methods. 120 people aged 18 to 50 years with non-infectious uveitis and macular edema were examined: 46 men, 74 women. The patients were divided into 2 groups: main group (anti-infammatory treatment and the administration of platelet autoplasma); comparison group (anti-infammatory treatment). Patients underwent standard ophthalmological examination. To assess the activity of local infammatory process a study of cytokine content in the lacrimal fuid before and after treatment was conducted. Results. In patients with non- infectious uveitis the use of platelet autoplasma in the treatment of patients assigned to the main group lead to a statistically signifcant increase in the concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A in the lacrimal fuid. A statistically signifcant decrease in the concentrations of proinfammatory cytokines was observed when auto-plasma was used. Conclusion. The use of platelet autoplasma in the treatment of patients with non-infectious uveitis with macular edema is pathogenetically justifed, as it is associated with a pronounced decrease in the activity of the immuno-infammatory process, which is confrmed by the

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Results of a seven-year follow-up of an atypical form of multiple sclerosis, Marburg variant

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 414-418
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Case report
Authors: Andrusyakova Ye.P., Ioyleva Ye.E., Safonenko A.Yu., Krivosheeva M.S., Pis'menskaya V.A.
Organization: "Eye Microsurgery" n.a. academician S. N. Fedorov, Volgograd branch, Moscow State Medical Stomatological University n.a. A. I. Evdokimov
Summary:

Marburg disease afects young people and is characterized by an acute onset with a fulminant course. The disease leads to death within 1 year from the onset of symptoms. In Academician S. N. Fedorov «Eye Microsurgery» Center (Moscow) a patient with Marburg multiple sclerosis was followed up for seven years. Standard treatment in combination with physiotherapy treatment slowed the development of an irreversible decrease in visual function due to atrophy of the optic nerves.

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On preparation of am-niotic membrane as a scafold for cultivated cells to create corneal bioengineering constructs

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 409-413
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Aleksandrova OI, Gavrilyuk IO, Mashel TV, Chernysh VF, Churashov SV, Kulikov AN, Blinova MI.
Organization: Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Military Medical Academy n.a. S. M. Kirov, St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
Summary:

Aim: to determine the preparation of amniotic membrane (AM) necessary for its use as a scafold for cultured cells to create bioengineered constructions (BEC). Material and Methods. Native AM was placed in a special clamping device and subjected to additional mechanical, thermal and enzymatic treatment: removal of mucus residues from its surface and cryoconservation of AM scafolds was performed at –80°C, — 20°C with subsequent decellularization with a 0.25 % Tripsin-EDTA mixture. The lifetime assessment of the morphology of cells cultivated on AM scafolds was performed using a Nikon Eclipse TS100 inverted microscope equipped with camera. The viability and metabolic activity of AM cells was determined by means of an MTT test using a UNIFLAN AIFR-01 tablet spectrophotometer (Picon, Russia) at a wavelength of 570 nm and a reference wavelength of 620 nm. Results. It has been established that the presence of mucous residueson the surface of native AM, which are not removed during standard mechanical processing, negatively afect the survival of the cell test system. The efects of cryoconservation of AM scafolds revealed the positive efects of this process together with enzymatic decellularization for improving the viability of cells cultured on scafolds. Conclusion. Standard mechanical processing of native AM does not guarantee complete cleaning of its surface from mucus residues that interfere with adhesion and even distribution of cultured cells. It is necessary to reliably control the removal of AM surface mucus before immobilization and further manipulations. Cryopreservation and subsequent decellularization of AM scafolds contributes to the increased viability of the cell test system. AM scafolds, purifed from amniotic mucus, cryopreserved at –80 ° C in a mixture of DMEM-F12 and DMSO (1:1) and enzymatic decellularization after thawing, turned out to be the best of the studied substrates for cell cultivation.

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Modern approaches to treatment of uveitis in systemic diseases of connective tissue

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 956-960
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Kamalova K.B., Zakirkhodjayev R.A., Asrorkhodjayeva I.R.
Organization: Tashkent Medical Academy
Summary:

 Uveitis can develop in various systemic diseases of connective tissue. This article provides data on modern methods of treatment for such cases of uveitis. Uveitis in systemic diseases of the connective tissue develops due to violations of cellular and humoral immunity. Given the pathogenesis of the primary disorder, treatment of uveitis in systemic diseases of connective tissue involves use of cytotoxic drugs, TNFa inhibitors, cytokines, antibodies to lymphocyte surface antigens, and immunoglobulins. Due to the chronic course of the disorder and frequent relapses, it is advisable to use local and systemic glucocorticoid drugs with prolonged effect. The combined corticosteroid drug diprospan containing the two active ingredients of betamethasone provides a combination of immediate and prolonged effects, thereby improving patient's clinical condition and prolonging the period of remission.

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Bacterial collagenase in the treatment of vitreoretinal pathology

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 953-956
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Zgoba M.l., Lyskin P.V., Makarenko I.R.
Organization: The S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

Bacterial collagenase has been used in Russian ophthalmology for more than 40 years, its official medical use is allowed since 1983 Collagenase is used in the treatment of a broad spectrum of ophthalmopathology For the treatment of vitreoretinal pathology the drug has been used since 1996 To date, quite a lot of experience in the use of bacterial collagenase for the treatment of vitreoretinal pathology has been accumulated. The article presents the literature data on the possibilities of using the drug in various areas of vitreoretinal pathology and the prospects of expanding the indications for the use of the drug in a wider ophthalmic practice.

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Bacterial collagenase in the treatment of vitreoretinal pathology

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 953-956
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Zgoba M.l., Lyskin P.V., Makarenko I.R.
Organization: The S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

Bacterial collagenase has been used in Russian ophthalmology for more than 40 years, its official medical use is allowed since 1983 Collagenase is used in the treatment of a broad spectrum of ophthalmopathology For the treatment of vitreoretinal pathology the drug has been used since 1996 To date, quite a lot of experience in the use of bacterial collagenase for the treatment of vitreoretinal pathology has been accumulated. The article presents the literature data on the possibilities of using the drug in various areas of vitreoretinal pathology and the prospects of expanding the indications for the use of the drug in a wider ophthalmic practice.

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Comorbidity of diseases of the cardiovascular system and primary open-angle glaucoma

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 949-953
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Zagidullina A.Sh., Latypova Е.А., Nugmanova A.R.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

This literature review examines the potential diagnostic contribution of syndromes and cardiovascular diseases: hypertension, atherosclerosis, vascular dystonia, and cerebrovascular pathology in the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The study of relationships is relevant due to the commonality of some pathogenetic factors of POAG and these diseases and syndromes. It is necessary to take into account the effect of comorbid pathology in the early diagnosis of POAG, which will improve its quality, and the correction of associated disorders will contribute to the effectiveness of complex treatment of the disease.

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Ocular rosacea: etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations and main methods of treatment

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 946-949
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Mustafina G.R., Khismatullina Z.R., Sattarova R.R.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care, ZAO Optimedservis
Summary:

The review of the literature covers etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations and the main methods of treatment of ocular rosacea. Rosacea is one of the common chronic skin diseases with a diverse clinical picture. Ophthalmological manifestations of the disease are associated with affect to the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelids. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood currently. Pathological processes in ocular rosacea are associated with disorders in vascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as with the influence of a number of microorganisms. In the treatment of ocular rosacea drugs of local and systemic action are used. Systemic therapy includes tetracycline and macrolide antibiotics and angioprotectors. Local therapy is associated with the use of artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and local antibiotics. In severe cases of ocular rosacea surgical management is required.

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